Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 373, Issue 2, pp 407–419 | Cite as

Restoring the IL-1β/NF-κB-induced impaired chondrogenesis by diallyl disulfide in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells via attenuation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of antioxidant enzymes

  • Kobra Bahrampour Juybari
  • Tunku Kamarul
  • Mohammad Najafi
  • Davood Jafari
  • Ali Mohammad Sharifi
Regular Article


Strategies based on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for restoring injured articular cartilage are not effective enough in osteoarthritis (OA). Due to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in OA microenvironment, differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes would be impaired. This study aims to explore the effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on IL-1β-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) during chondrogenesis. MTT assay was employed to examine the effects of various concentrations of DADS on the viability of hADSCs at different time scales to obtain non-cytotoxic concentration range of DADS. The effects of DADS on IL-1β-induced intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in hADSCs. Western blotting was used to analyze the protein expression levels of IκBα (np), IκBα (p), NF-κB (np) and NF-κB (p). Furthermore, the gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in hADSCs and chondrogenic markers at days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation were measured using qRT-PCR. The results showed that addition of DADS significantly enhanced the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as reduced ROS elevation, lipid peroxidation, IκBα activation and NF-κB nuclear translocation in hADSCs treated with IL-1β. In addition, DADS could significantly increase the expression levels of IL-1β-induced impaired chondrogenic marker genes in differentiated hADSCs. Treatment with DADS may provide an effective approach to prevent the pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress as catabolic causes of chondrocyte cell death and enhance the protective anabolic effects by promoting chondrogenesis associated gene expressions in hADSCs exposed to OA condition.


Osteoarthritis Diallyl disulfide Inflammation Oxidative stress Chondrogenesis 



The authors would like to thank Hoda Sharifi for her constructive criticism of the manuscript.


This study was supported by a grant from the Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

441_2018_2825_Fig9_ESM.gif (34 kb)
Fig. S1

The mRNA expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes including COMP a, COL2a b, SOX9 c and aggrecan d were studied by qRT-PCR in different experimental groups on day 14. The IL-1β + 1 μM of the DADS group showed a significant increase in the gene expression levels of COMP, COL2a and SOX9 compared to the IL-1β group. Data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 3; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 versus the IL-1β group and #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 versus the control group (GIF 34 kb).

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High Resolution Image (TIFF 3843 kb).
441_2018_2825_Fig10_ESM.gif (34 kb)
Fig. S2

The mRNA expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes including COMP a, COL2a b, SOX9 c and aggrecan d were examined by qRT-PCR in different experimental groups on day 7. The IL-1β + 1 μM of the DADS group showed a significant increase in the gene expression levels of COMP, COL2a and aggrecan compared to the IL-1β group. Data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 3; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 versus the IL-1β group and #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 versus the control group (GIF 34 kb).

441_2018_2825_MOESM2_ESM.tif (3.6 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 3724 kb).
441_2018_2825_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 12 kb).
441_2018_2825_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 12 kb).
441_2018_2825_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
ESM 3 (XLSX 12 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kobra Bahrampour Juybari
    • 1
  • Tunku Kamarul
    • 2
  • Mohammad Najafi
    • 3
  • Davood Jafari
    • 4
  • Ali Mohammad Sharifi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Razi Drug Research Center, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Tissue Engineering Group, (NOCERAL), Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Bone and Joint reconstruction research center and Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Shafa Orthopedic HospitalIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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