Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 331, Issue 1, pp 67–78 | Cite as

Immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells

  • Karl-Henrik GrinnemoEmail author
  • Christer Sylvén
  • Outi Hovatta
  • Göran Dellgren
  • Matthias Corbascio


Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) are pluripotent stem cells isolated from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. With the first successful culturing of HESC, a new era of regenerative medicine was born. HESC can differentiate into almost any cell type and, in the future, might replace solid organ transplantation and even be used to treat progressive degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Although this sounds promising, certain obstacles remain with regard to their clinical use, such as culturing HESC under well-defined conditions without exposure to animal proteins, the risk of teratoma development and finally the avoidance of immune rejection. In this review, we discuss the immunological properties of HESC and various strategic solutions to circumvent immune rejection, such as stem cell banking, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the induction of tolerance by co-stimulation blockade and mixed chimerism.


Embryonic stem cells Immunogenicity Immune-privilege Rejection Immunotolerance 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Henrik Grinnemo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christer Sylvén
    • 2
  • Outi Hovatta
    • 3
  • Göran Dellgren
    • 1
  • Matthias Corbascio
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Department of Molecular Medicine and SurgeryKarolinska Institute, Karolinska University HospitalStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineKarolinska Institute, Karolinska University HospitalStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and TechnologyKarolinska Institute, Karolinska University HospitalStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of Heart DiseasesCardiothoracic Surgery, Haukelands University HospitalBergenNorway

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