Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 329, Issue 1, pp 129–136 | Cite as

Identification of nestin-positive putative mammary stem cells in human breastmilk

  • Mark D. Cregan
  • Yiping Fan
  • Amber Appelbee
  • Mark L. Brown
  • Borut Klopcic
  • John Koppen
  • Leon R. Mitoulas
  • Kristin M. E. Piper
  • Mahesh A Choolani
  • Yap-Seng Chong
  • Peter E. Hartmann
Short Communication

Abstract

Stem cells in mammary tissue have been well characterised by using the mammary stem cell marker, cytokeratin (CK) 5 and the mature epithelial markers CK14, CK18 and CK19. As these markers have never been reported in cells from breastmilk, the aim of this study has been to determine whether mammary stem cells are present in expressed human breastmilk. Cultured cells from human breastmilk were studied by using immunofluorescent labelling and reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found a heterogeneous population of cells with differential expression of CK5, CK14, CK18 and CK19. Further, by using the multipotent stem cell marker, nestin, we identified cells in culture that were positive only for nestin or double-positive for CK5/nestin, whereas no co-staining was observed for CK14, CK18 and CK19 with nestin. When cells isolated from breastmilk were analysed by using RT-PCR prior to culture, only nestin and CK18 were detected, thereby indicating that breastmilk contained differentiated epithelial and putative stem cells. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis demonstrated, in breastmilk, a small side-population of cells that excluded Hoechst 33342 (a key property of multipotent stem cells). When stained for nestin, the cells in the side-population were positive, whereas those not in the side-population were negative. The presence of nestin-positive putative mammary stem cells suggests that human breastmilk is a readily available and non-invasive source of putative mammary stem cells that may be useful for research into both mammary gland biology and more general stem cell biology.

Keywords

Mammary gland Breastmilk Putative mammary stem cell Lactation Breastfeeding Human 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Cregan
    • 1
  • Yiping Fan
    • 2
  • Amber Appelbee
    • 1
  • Mark L. Brown
    • 1
  • Borut Klopcic
    • 3
  • John Koppen
    • 1
  • Leon R. Mitoulas
    • 4
  • Kristin M. E. Piper
    • 1
  • Mahesh A Choolani
    • 2
  • Yap-Seng Chong
    • 2
  • Peter E. Hartmann
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Life and Physical Sciences, M310The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Fremantle Hospital UnitThe University of Western AustraliaFremantleAustralia
  4. 4.Medela AGBaarSwitzerland

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