Skip to main content
Log in

A novel 193-plex MPS panel integrating STRs and SNPs highlights the application value of forensic genetics in individual identification and paternity testing

  • Original Investigation
  • Published:
Human Genetics Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has emerged as a promising technology for targeting multiple genetic loci simultaneously in forensic genetics. Here, a novel 193-plex panel was designed to target 28 A-STRs, 41 Y-STRs, 21 X-STRs, 3 sex-identified loci, and 100 A-SNPs by employing a single-end 400 bp sequencing strategy on the MGISEQ-2000™ platform. In the present study, a series of validations and sequencing of 1642 population samples were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the MPS-based panel and its practicality in forensic application according to the SWGDAM guidelines. In general, the 193-plex markers in our panel showed good performance in terms of species specificity, stability, and repeatability. Compared to commercial kits, this panel achieved 100% concordance for standard gDNA and 99.87% concordance for 14,560 population genotypes. Moreover, this panel detected 100% of the loci from 0.5 ng of DNA template and all unique alleles at a 1:4 DNA mixture ratio (0.2 ng minor contributor), and the applicability of the proposed approach for tracing and degrading DNA was further supported by case samples. In addition, several forensic parameters of STRs and SNPs were calculated in a population study. High CPE and CPD values greater than 0.9999999 were clearly demonstrated and these results could be useful references for the application of this panel in individual identification and paternity testing. Overall, this 193-plex MPS panel has been shown to be a reliable, repeatable, robust, inexpensive, and powerful tool sufficient for forensic practice.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge the following organization for their help in obtaining animal samples: Guangzhou Zoo & Guangzhou Wildlife Research Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. The authors would also like to thank the reviewers for their helpful contributions toward this paper.


This work was supported by the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China (No. 2019030016) and Open Project of Key Laboratory of Forensic Genetics, Ministry of Public Security (2020FGKFKT05).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All the authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by Xueyuan Liu, Chengliang Yang and Xiaohui Chen. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Xueyuan Liu and Chengliang Yang. All the authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Changhui Liu, Ling Chen or Chao Liu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Ethics approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Southern Medical University (Approval Number: 2020-01) and was conducted in accordance with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Consent to participate

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (TIF 9870 KB)

Supplementary file2 (XLSX 256 KB)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, X., Yang, C., Chen, X. et al. A novel 193-plex MPS panel integrating STRs and SNPs highlights the application value of forensic genetics in individual identification and paternity testing. Hum. Genet. 143, 371–383 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: