Human Genetics

, Volume 136, Issue 8, pp 951–961 | Cite as

Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion

  • Lam Opal Huang
  • Claire Infante-Rivard
  • Aurélie Labbe
Original Investigation


Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD. We now propose to further extend this model to estimate an imprinting parameter. Some evidence suggests that more than 1% of all mammalian genes are imprinted. In the presence of imprinting, for example, the offspring inheriting an over-transmitted disease allele from the parent with a higher expression level in a neighboring gene is over-represented in the sample. TRD mechanisms such as meiotic drive and gametic competition occur in a sex-of-parent-specific manner. Therefore, sex-of-parent-specific TRD (ST) leads to over-representation of maternal or paternal alleles in the affected child. As a result, ST may bias the imprinting effect when present in the sample. We propose a sex-of-parent-specific transmission offset in adjusting the loglinear model to account for ST. This extended model restores the correct RR estimates for child and imprinting effects, adjusts for inflation in Type 1 error, and improves performance on sensitivity and specificity compared to the original model without ST offset. We conclude that to correctly interpret the association signal of an imprinting effect, adjustment for ST is necessary to ensure valid conclusions.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

439_2017_1824_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section for Metabolic Genetics, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic ResearchUniversity of CopenhagenKøbenhavn ØDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational HealthMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of Decision SciencesHEC MontréalMontrealCanada

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