Mutations in ANKRD11 have recently been reported to cause KBG syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by intellectual disability (ID), behavioral problems, and macrodontia. To understand the pathogenic mechanism that relates ANKRD11 mutations with the phenotype of KBG syndrome, we studied the cellular characteristics of wild-type ANKRD11 and the effects of mutations in humans and mice. We show that the abundance of wild-type ANKRD11 is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and that the ANKRD11 C-terminus is required for the degradation of the protein. Analysis of 11 pathogenic ANKRD11 variants in humans, including six reported in this study, and one reported in the Ankrd11 Yod/+ mouse, shows that all mutations affect the C-terminal regions and that the mutant proteins accumulate aberrantly. In silico analysis shows the presence of D-box sequences that are signals for proteasome degradation. We suggest that ANKRD11 C-terminus plays an important role in regulating the abundance of the protein, and a disturbance of the protein abundance due to the mutations leads to KBG syndrome.
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We thank Karen Neagley for the administrative support and the English proofreading of the manuscript, Professor Stephen Michnick for the PCA expression constructs, and Dr. Raman Sharma for his useful discussions. This work was partially funded by the Hayward Foundation and NHMRC Project Grant APP1009452.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
K. Walz and D. Cohen contributed equally to this work.
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Walz, K., Cohen, D., Neilsen, P.M. et al. Characterization of ANKRD11 mutations in humans and mice related to KBG syndrome. Hum Genet 134, 181–190 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-014-1509-2
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