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Potential distribution modelling for Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in South America

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The species Haemonchus contortus occurs in many regions worldwide, mainly parasitising small ruminants and economically impacting animal production. Climate change is considered a driving force for the risk of diseases caused by helminths and can also affect relationships between parasites and their hosts, with the potential to cause losses in both animal production and biodiversity in general. The aim of this study was to model the potential distribution of H. contortus in South America. We used MaxEnt to perform the analyses and describe the contribution of important bioclimatic variables involved in the species distribution. Our results show that H. contortus colonised most of the areas with habitats that suit the species’ environmental requirements and that this parasite presents habitat suitability in a future scenario. Understanding the effects of climate change on the occurrence and distribution of parasite species is essential for monitoring these pathogens, in addition to predicting the areas that tend to present future parasite outbreaks and identify opportunities to mitigate the impacts of the emergence of diseases caused by these organisms.

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We thank the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico do Maranhão (FAPEMA) for a research fellowship to Adonias Aphoena Martins Teixeira (PDCTR/FAPEMA/CNPq 301692/2021-2). We thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) for a research fellowships to Janaina Marques do Nascimento, Arlan Araujo Rodrigues and José Gracione do Nascimento Sousa Filho. This study was partially financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance code 001.


This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

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Authors and Affiliations



Janaina Marques do Nascimento wrote the main text of the manuscript. Samuel Vieira Brito and Renata Frederico did the analysis/modeling and helped with writing the manuscript. Adonias Aphoena Martins Teixeira, contributed to the analysis and production of the manuscript. Arlan Araujo Rodrigues contributed to the bibliographical survey and the production of the main text. José Gracione do Nascimento Sousa Filho contributed to the layout of the figures and preparation of the tables. Ivo Alexandre Leme da Cunha participated in the writing and design of the study. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Janaina Marques do Nascimento.

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Section Editor: Abdul Jabbar.

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do Nascimento, J.M., Brito, S.V., Teixeira, A.A.M. et al. Potential distribution modelling for Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in South America. Parasitol Res 123, 227 (2024).

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