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First record of Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819) Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with a morphological and molecular characterization from two threskiornithid species in Mexico


Patagifer Dietz, 1909 is a small genus of echinostomatids, with 12 recognized species, mostly parasitising threskiornithid birds, distributed worldwide. In the current research, adult specimens of the type species, Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819) Dietz, 1909 from the white faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) and white ibis (Eudocimus albus) were re-described, providing new metrical data for the number of head collar spines. Those specimens were recorded from eight localities in Mexico and compared morphologically with specimens previously identified as Patagifer lamothei. A total of 19 specimens identified as P. bilobus including two hologenophores were sequenced with three molecular markers: domains D1–D3 of the large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) plus 5.8S from the nuclear rDNA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) from mitochondrial DNA. The new sequences were aligned with other sequences of Patagifer spp., downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees inferred from each data set, placed all the specimens in a clade, confirming that the isolates belonged to the same species. The morphological examination of specimens previously identified as P. lamothei by Ortega-Olivares MP, Hernández-Mena DI, Pérez-Ponce de León G, García-Varela M (2011) Helminths of the white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Aves Therskiornithidae) in Mexico. (Zootaxa 3088, 15–26. 10.11646/zootaxa.3088.1.2) and in combination with molecular data confirms that those specimens should be reassigned to P. bilobus. In addition, this is the first study in P. bilobus using an integrative taxonomy approach.

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We are grateful to Laura Márquez and Nelly López Ortiz, LaNaBio for their help during the sequencing of the DNA fragments. We are grateful to Berenit Garfias for her help in laboratory. We are also grateful to Luis García for loan material from CNHE. MTGG and ALJ thank the support of the Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, UNAM, and CONACYT (CVU 956064; CVU 706119) respectively for granting a scholarship to complete their Master and PhD programme.


This research was supported by grants from the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT-UNAM) IN201122.

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Correspondence to Leopoldo Andrade-Gómez.

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Specimens were collected under the Cartilla Nacional de Colector Científico (FAUT 0202) issued by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), to MGV.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Sereno-Uribe, A.L., González-García, M.T., Ortega-Olivares, M.P. et al. First record of Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819) Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with a morphological and molecular characterization from two threskiornithid species in Mexico. Parasitol Res 121, 1921–1935 (2022).

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  • Morphology
  • Systematic
  • Trematoda
  • LSU
  • ITS
  • nad1
  • Molecular phylogeny
  • Americas
  • Integrative taxonomy