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Using pastoralist community knowledge to locate and treat dry-season mosquito breeding habitats with pyriproxyfen to control Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.l. in rural Tanzania

  • Arthropods and Medical Entomology - Original Paper
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Fundamentally, larviciding with pyriproxyfen (PPF) has potential to complement Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS) in settings where resistance to pyrethroids and residual malaria transmission exist. In this study, we evaluated the field effectiveness of larviciding using PPF to reduce dry season productivity of mosquito breeding habitats that were located by pastoralists within the study area. Using pastoralist knowledge, dry season breeding habitats in Mofu village rural Tanzania were located and monitored for larval productivity for a period of 8 months before PPF intervention. During the intervention, six out of twelve breeding habitats were treated with Sumilarv 0.5G PPF granules. The impact of deposited PPF was monitored by recording emergence inhibition of larvae collected from treated habitats compared to the appropriate control group for a period of three months and half post-intervention. During baseline, the average proportion (+SD) of adult emerged was similar between two clusters, with (0.89 + 0.22) for the control cluster and (0.93 + 0.16) for the treatment cluster of breeding habitats. Following treatment with PPF, the average proportion (+SD) of adult emerged in the treated breeding habitats was significantly low (0.096 + 0.22) compared to adults that emerged from larvae in the untreated habitats (0.99 + 0.22) (p < 0.0001). Of all emerged adults, approximately 94% were An. gambiae s.l. and the remaining 6% were An. funestus s.l. This is the first study demonstrating the usefulness of engaging pastoralist community to locate and identify hard to find mosquito breeding habitats. Reduced productivity of the targeted habitats with PPF offers prospect of implementing PPF larviciding in dry season when habitats are few and permanent to control mosquito population in rural settings.

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Data availability

The original data from this study can only be shared as per Ifakara Health Institute data sharing policy.



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On their permission, we thank the pastoralists’ communities for participating in the study by identifying dry season breeding habitats. We also thank Matrida Kideule and Josephat Kihonda for coordinating larval sampling and rearing activities.


The study was funded by the Grand Challenges Canada through the Stars in Global Health (Toronto, Canada), Grant number S7 0678-01-10.

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DL, EL and RS participated in study design and manuscript draft. DL, EL, AL and JK participated in data collection. AL created a map of a study area. EL, DL and HN participated in data analysis. All authors reviewed and approved final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Dickson W. Lwetoijera.

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Lupenza, E.T., Kihonda, J., Limwagu, A.J. et al. Using pastoralist community knowledge to locate and treat dry-season mosquito breeding habitats with pyriproxyfen to control Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.l. in rural Tanzania. Parasitol Res 120, 1193–1202 (2021).

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