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A world review of reported myiases caused by flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), including the first case of human myiasis from Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805)

  • Arthropods and Medical Entomology - Original Paper
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Abstract

Rat-tailed larvae of the syrphid species Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805) are documented causing an enteric human myiasis in Costa Rica. This is the first time that the genus Palpada is recorded as a human myiasis agent. We report a 68-year-old woman with intestinal pain and bloody diarrhea with several live Palpada larvae present in the stool. Using molecular techniques (DNA barcodes) and both electronic and optical microscopy to study the external morphology, the preimaginal stages of the fly were unambiguously identified. An identification key to all syrphid genera actually known as agents of human and animal myiases is provided for larvae, puparia, and adults. Moreover, a critical world review of more than 100 references of Syrphidae as myiasis agents is also given, with emphasis on the species with rat-tailed larvae.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Javier Oviedo Cervantes and Labitec S.A. Laboratories for letting us study the larvae of Palpada scutellaris. We thank Jeff H. Skevington (Canadian National Collections) for the English language editing; any remaining error is ours. We also thank Claudia Etzbauer (ZFMK) for her help in the molecular lab to obtain DNA sequences and Andrés Campoy (University of Alicante) for the drawings. We are indebted to Marcela López (Asociación Médica Argentina), Chong Chin Heo (Universiti Teknologi MARA), Bilal Dik (Selçuk University), Refaat Khalifa (Assiut University), Naudy Trujillo (Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado), Mercedes París (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid), Xavier Verhelst (Ghent University Hospital), Giovanni Poglayen (Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna), Kurt Jordaens (Royal Museum for Central Africa), Libor Mazanek (Palacký University Olomouc), and Francis Gilbert (University of Nottingham) for their help with obtaining valuable bibliographic information.

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Pérez-Bañón, C., Rojas, C., Vargas, M. et al. A world review of reported myiases caused by flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), including the first case of human myiasis from Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805). Parasitol Res 119, 815–840 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06616-4

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