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Albendazole resistance induced in Ancylostoma ceylanicum is not due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codons 167, 198, or 200 of the beta-tubulin gene, indicating another resistance mechanism

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Mass drug administration has been implicated as the major cause of drug resistance in nematodes of ruminants. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codons 167, 198, and 200 of the beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene are associated with albendazole resistance mechanisms. Although drug resistance is suspected to occur in nematodes of the same order, at present, there is no evidence of a strong correlation between these canonical SNPs and albendazole resistance in hookworms. In the absence of a hookworm strain that is naturally resistant to albendazole, we produced an albendazole-resistant Ancylostoma ceylanicum strain by selective drug pressure. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) was employed to identify the presence of SNPs previously associated with drug resistance in other nematodes. However, none of the benzimidazole resistance–associated SNPs known in other nematodes were found. A beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene mini-cDNA library was constructed to obtain the complete cDNA gene sequence for the analysis of the entire gene to identify distinct SNPs associated with resistance. Some SNPs were found, but the resulting sequences were not reproducibly detected among the different clones, preventing their association with the resistance mechanism. The parasitological and hematological parameters of the albendazole-resistant strain were characterized and compared to those of the sensitive strain. Although the albendazole-resistant strain was less adapted to its host, with fewer worms recovered, all other parameters analyzed were similar between both strains. The results of the present study indicate that the mechanism of albendazole resistance of the resistant strain described herein must differ from those that have previously been characterized. Thus, new mechanistic studies are needed in the future.

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This work received financial support from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq (process number 470968/2014-1), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais—FAPEMIG (process number APQ-02417-16), and Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PRPq/UFMG).

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Correspondence to Élida Mara Leite Rabelo.

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Section Editor: Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna

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Furtado, L.F.V., de Aguiar, P.H.N., Zuccherato, L.W. et al. Albendazole resistance induced in Ancylostoma ceylanicum is not due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codons 167, 198, or 200 of the beta-tubulin gene, indicating another resistance mechanism. Parasitol Res 118, 837–849 (2019).

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