Phenotypic susceptibility to pyrethroids and organophosphate of wild Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in southwestern France
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Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important vector of lumpy skin disease and bovine besnoitiosis in Europe. Control of this biting fly could represent a keystone in the containment of this emerging disease. Reports of insecticide resistance in S. calcitrans are scarce in Europe. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic susceptibility to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and phoxim of five wild S. calcitrans populations from southwestern France, where transmission of bovine besnoitiosis is very prevalent. Adult S. calcitrans were caught at each study site and exposed to insecticide-impregnated filter papers under laboratory conditions. Quantities of active ingredients on filter papers corresponded to the recommended doses proposed by the manufacturers (37.5 mg a.i./m2 of cattle’s skin, 125 mg a.i./m2 and 750 mg a.i./m2 for deltamethrin, cypermethrin and phoxim respectively) were tested. Knock-down effects (KD) (1 h after the onset of exposure) and mortality rates (24 h and 48 h after exposure) were evaluated. Phoxim showed a rapid and full efficacy in all populations. However, the KD effects (37.5 to 97.5%) and the mortality rates at 48 h (10 to 91.25%) induced by the exposure to pyrethroids varied greatly according to the study site but none of the populations showed full susceptibility. Therefore, the current recommended doses of these pyrethroids are probably less efficient than expected in the field and should be considered with caution in the control of bovine besnoitiosis in France.
KeywordsStomoxys calcitrans Susceptibility Pyrethroid Organophosphate Insecticide resistance
This study was kindly supported by the Junior Research Fellowship Program 2017 by French Embassy of Thailand, National Veterinary School of Toulouse, France and the Thailand Research Fund Organization (TRF) through a Research Grant for New Scholar (Grant. No. MRG6080209). The authors would like to express special gratitude to the cattle breeders who were involved in the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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