The potential role of toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphism and its association with recurrent cystic echinococcosis in postoperative patients
The study of pathogenesis mechanisms of larval stages in the Taeniidae has recently focused on host genetic factors, particularly toll-like receptor (TLR) variations. However, the potential role of TLR4 polymorphism in hydatidosis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated in postoperative patients. In this case-control investigation, 80 patients from Iran, including 40 with acute hydatidosis (AH) and 40 with recurrent hydatidosis (RH), and 80 ethnically matched controls were evaluated from February 2015 to February 2017. Hydatidosis patients were confirmed using radiological, immunological, and histopathological examinations. Genotyping of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile of TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism, sequencing, and phylogenetic strategies. The heterozygous mutant-type TLR4 Asp299Gly genotype indicated a tendency to be associated with the occurrence of RH (P = 0.060) and conferred a 3-fold risk for susceptibility. There was no difference in genotype frequency of Asp299Gly between patients with AH and healthy controls (P = 0.42; OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.11–30.1%). Interestingly, a frequency of the G allele (12%: Gly) was observed to be a risk factor for susceptibility to RH patients (P = 0.050; OR, 7.08; 95% CI, 0.97–51.5%). A relative genetic variability of TLR4 Asp299Gly was found in RH patients (haplotype diversity: 0.700) compared to AH patients and healthy controls (Hd: 0.000). The Asp299Gly genotype was dominantly identified in patients with hepatic hydatid cysts. The TLR4 Thr399Ile codon was not detected except in a patient with a pulmonary hydatid cyst. The current findings enhance our knowledge regarding the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism potentially leading to the development of RH, by skewing the immune system towards a Th2 response. Identification of the Asp299Gly codon may be a diagnostic hallmark in RH patients who have undergone unsuccessful postoperative intervention. However, further studies with a higher case number are needed on ethnic population from various geographic regions, in order to confirm this hypothesis.
KeywordsRecurrent hydatidosis Innate immunity Toll-like receptor 4 Unsuccessful postoperative intervention
This study was financially supported by Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran (Grant no. 95/2-5/1). This is a report of a database from the thesis of Jafar Noori registered in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.
Compliance with ethical standards
All patients provided written informed consent for participation in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS; No: 5/D/56350).
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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