Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 4, pp 1195–1204 | Cite as

Sarcocystis cymruensis: discovery in Western Hemisphere in the Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) from Grenada, West Indies: redescription, molecular characterization, and transmission to IFN-γ gene knockout mice via sporocysts from experimentally infected domestic cat (Felis catus)

  • Fernando H. Antunes Murata
  • Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar
  • Peter C. Thompson
  • Keshaw Tiwari
  • Joseph D. Mowery
  • Shiv K. Verma
  • Benjamin M. Rosenthal
  • Ravindra N. Sharma
  • Jitender P. Dubey
Original Paper

Abstract

Rodents are intermediate hosts for many species of Sarcocystis. Little is known of Sarcocystis cymruensis that uses the Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) as intermediate hosts and the domestic cat (Felis catus) as experimental definitive host. Here, we identified and described Sarcocystis cymruensis in naturally infected R. norvegicus from Grenada, West Indies. Rats (n = 167) were trapped in various locations in two parishes (St. George and St. David). Microscopic, thin (< 1 μm) walled, slender sarcocysts were found in 11 of 156 (7.0%) rats skeletal muscles by squash examination. A laboratory-raised cat fed naturally infected rat tissues excreted sporocysts that were infectious for interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to Swiss Webster outbred albino mice. All inoculated mice remained asymptomatic, and microscopic S. cymruensis-like sarcocysts were found in the muscles of KO mice euthanized on day 70, 116, and 189 post inoculation (p.i.). Sarcocysts from infected KO mice were infective for cats at day 116 but not at 70 days p.i. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was “type 1a.” Detailed morphological description of the cyst wall, metrocytes, and bradyzoites is given for the first time. Additionally, molecular data on S. cymruensis are presented also for the first time. Molecular characterization of sarcocysts 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and cox1 loci showed the highest similarity with S. rodentifelis and S. muris. In conclusion, the present study described the natural infection of S. cymruensis in Brown rat for the first time in a Caribbean country and provided its molecular characteristics.

Keywords

Sarcocystis cymruensis Rattus norvegicus Grenada Ultrastructure Phylogeny 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by an appointment to the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ORISE is managed by ORAU under DOE contract number DE-SC0014664.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclaimer

All opinions expressed in this paper are the author’s and do not necessarily reflect the policies and views of USDA, ARS, DOE, or ORAU/ORISE.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando H. Antunes Murata
    • 1
  • Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar
    • 1
  • Peter C. Thompson
    • 1
  • Keshaw Tiwari
    • 2
  • Joseph D. Mowery
    • 3
  • Shiv K. Verma
    • 1
  • Benjamin M. Rosenthal
    • 1
  • Ravindra N. Sharma
    • 2
  • Jitender P. Dubey
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Parasitic Diseases LaboratoryBeltsville Agricultural Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Pathobiology Department, School of Veterinary MedicineSt. George’s UniversitySt. George’sGrenada
  3. 3.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Electron and Confocal Microscopy UnitBeltsville Agricultural Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA

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