Adaptation of the secretome of Echinostoma caproni may contribute to parasite survival in a Th1 milieu
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Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode, broadly employed to study the host-dependent mechanisms that govern the evolution of intestinal helminth infections. Resistance against E. caproni homologous secondary infections has been reported in mice and appears to be related to the generation of a local Th2 response, whereas Th1 responses promote the development of chronic primary infections. Herein, the ability of E. caproni to modulate its secretome according to the host environment is investigated. A two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis was performed to elucidate changes in the excretory/secretory products of E. caproni adults after primary and secondary infections in mice. A total of 16 protein spots showed significant differences between groups, and 7 of them were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. Adult worms exposed to a primary infection appear to upregulate proteins involved in detoxification (aldo-keto reductase), stress response (GroEL), and enhancement of parasite survival (acetyl-CoA A-acetyltransferase and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate urydyltransferase). In contrast, any protein was found to be significantly upregulated after secondary infection. Upregulation of such proteins may serve to withstand the hostile Th1 environment generated in primary infections in mice. These results provide new insights into the resistance mechanisms developed by the parasites to ensure their long-term survival.
KeywordsEchinostoma caproni Trematoda Secretome modulation Immune response Infection resistance 2D-DIGE
This work was supported by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Madrid, Spain) (grant number BFU2016-75639-P); Conselleria d’Educació, Generalitat Valenciana (Valencia, Spain) (grant number PROMETEO2014-083 Fase II), and from Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Madrid, Spain) (No. RD12/0018/0013, Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales (RICET), IV National Program of I+D+I 2008-2011, ISCIII—Subdirección General de Redes y Centros de Investigación Cooperativa and FEDER).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution at which the studies were conducted.
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This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by none of the authors.
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