Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 9, pp 2605–2609 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationships between Dicrocoelium chinensis populations in Japan and China based on mitochondrial nad1 gene sequences

  • Kei Hayashi
  • WenQiang Tang
  • Yuma Ohari
  • Maiko Ohtori
  • Uday Kumar Mohanta
  • Kayoko Matsuo
  • Hiroshi Sato
  • Tadashi ItagakiEmail author
Short Communication


We carried out phylogenetic analyses of the relationships between Dicrocoelium chinensis populations in Japan and China using molecular markers. One hundred nine lancet flukes collected from Japan and China were identified as D. chinensis based on their testis orientation and the nucleotide sequences of their ribosomal ITS2. These flukes were analyzed phylogenetically using mitochondrial nad1 gene sequences. An analysis of molecular variance found that the percentage of variation between the countries was extremely high, indicating that the D. chinensis populations in Japan and China are differentiated genetically. D. chinensis mainly parasitizes wild sika deer, which is thought to originate in northeast Asia and to have colonized into Japan from the Eurasia continent in the Pleistocene glaciations. In addition, phylogenic analyses indicated that Japanese sika deer is genetically differentiated from Chinese population; therefore, we hypothesize that D. chinensis might have been introduced into Japan along with the migration of infected wild ruminants in the Pleistocene, and then the population became differentiated from the Chinese population. This study provides the nucleotide sequences of the nad1 gene of D. chinensis in Japan for the first time and shows that these sequences are useful for elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the Dicrocoelium species prevalent in Asia.


Dicrocoelium chinensis China Japan nad1 Phylogenetic analysis ITS2 



We would like to thank Editage ( for English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country. The sika deer were obtained from regular hunting program of the particular hunting area in consideration of the wildlife protection and hunting management law of Japan. The Japanese serrow died accidentally in Japan. The flukes from the bile ducts of sheep and yak were collected in slaughterhouses in China. No animal was killed with the aim of providing samples for this study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of AgricultureIwate UniversityMoriokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pathogenic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary ScienceGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Animal ScienceTibet Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry SciencesLhasaChina
  4. 4.Hida Region Livestock Hygiene Service CenterTakayamaJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Applied Biological SciencesGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  6. 6.Laboratory of Parasitology, United Graduated School of Veterinary ScienceYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan

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