Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 11, pp 4317–4325 | Cite as

The life cycle of Thelohanellus kitauei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) involves aurantiactinomyxon in Branchiura sowerbyi

  • Dandan Zhao
  • Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin
  • Weimin Wang
  • Yang Liu
  • Gábor Cech
  • Yanhua Zhai
  • Csaba Székely
Original Paper


Thelohanellus kitauei is a freshwater myxosporean parasite causing intestinal giant cystic disease of common carp. To clarify the life cycle of T. kitauei, we investigated the oligochaete populations in China and Hungary. This study confirms two distinct aurantiactinomyxon morphotypes (Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2) from Branchiura sowerbyi as developmental stages of the life cycle of T. kitauei. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these two types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 (2048 bp) and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2 (2031 bp) share 99.2–99.4 %, 99.8–100 % similarity to the published sequences of T. kitauei, respectively. The 18S rDNA sequences of these two aurantiactinomyxon morphotypes share 99.4 % similarity, suggesting intraspecific variation within the taxon, possibly due to geographic origin. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the two aurantiactinomyxon types clustered with T. kitauei. Regardless, based on 18S rDNA synonymy, it is likely that Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 and 2 are conspecific with T. kitauei. This is the fourth elucidated two-host life cycle of Thelohanellus species and the first record of T. kitauei in Europe.


Thelohanellus kitauei Life cycle Aurantiactinomyxon 18S rDNA Branchiura sowerbyi China Hungary 



This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 634429 (ParaFishControl), OTKA K 100132, Nature Science Foundation of China (31502209), New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-0866), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M550399). The authors thank Hao Wu, Junfa Yuan, Qinxiang Guo, Jianchun Shao, Zhe Wang, Dan Li, and Yongliang Shen (Huazhong Agricultural University, China) for collecting sediment samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. The publication only reflects the views of authors, and the European Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dandan Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin
    • 3
    • 4
  • Weimin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Yang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Gábor Cech
    • 3
  • Yanhua Zhai
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Csaba Székely
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Aquatic Animal Medicine, College of FisheriesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei ProvinceWuhanChina
  3. 3.Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural ResearchBudapestHungary
  4. 4.School of Marine and Environmental ScienceUniversity Malaysia TerengganuKuala TerengganuMalaysia
  5. 5.Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of AgricultureWuhanChina

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