Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 5, pp 1853–1862 | Cite as

Description and molecular characterization of a new Leucocytozoon parasite (Haemosporida: Leucocytozoidae), Leucocytozoon californicus sp. nov., found in American kestrels (Falco sparverius sparverius)

  • Erika Walther
  • Gediminas Valkiūnas
  • Elizabeth A. Wommack
  • Rauri C. K. Bowie
  • Tatjana A. Iezhova
  • Ravinder N. M. Sehgal
Original Paper


Diurnal raptors in the order Accipitriformes are commonly parasitized with Leucocytozoon spp., and the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia are often high. However, for raptors in Falconiformes, several studies have reported relatively low prevalences (1 % or less) of Leucocytozoon spp. Leucocytozoon parasite pathogenicity has been documented in falcons, but little is known about the diversity, prevalence, and phylogenetic relationships among Leucocytozoon species in these predatory birds. The research reported here combines molecular and microscopic techniques to identify and describe Leucocytozoon parasites in Falco sparverius sparverius, the American kestrel, and place those parasites into a phylogenetic context with leucocytozoids previously found in other diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes), owls (Strigiformes), passerines (Passeriformes), and other bird species. Of 35 American kestrels sampled, 13 birds (37.1 %) were found by PCR to harbor the DNA lineage of a novel species, Leucocytozoon californicus. No other Leucocytozoon parasite lineages were identified in our sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this parasite clusters more closely with leucocytozoids found in owls and passerines than it does with leucocytozoids found in birds of the genera Buteo and Accipiter of the order Accipitriformes. This is the first described species of Leucocytozoon that parasitizes diurnal raptors in which gametocytes develop exclusively in roundish host blood cells. It is also the first Leucocytozoon species that is described and named in birds of the Falconiformes, in which, for unclear reasons, leucocytozoids are significantly less prevalent and less diverse than in raptors with a similar behavioral ecology belonging to the Accipitriformes.


Haemosporidia Leucocytozoon californicus American kestrel Falconiformes 



We gratefully acknowledge the Hopland Research and Extension Center, the University of California Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, and the Mitsui Ranch from the Sonoma Mountain Ranch Preservation Foundation for allowing us access to their facilities and sites. We also would like to thank all of the volunteers who helped us collect the samples used in this study. Field work performed for this study was made possible by funding from the Natural Reserve System Mildred E. Mathias Graduate Student Research Grant Program and the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.

Supplementary material

436_2016_4925_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Blood samples collected from Mendocino and Santa Clara Counties, CA from breeding American Kestrels (Falco sparverius sparverius) used in this study. (XLSX 11 kb)
436_2016_4925_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (172 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 Genetic distances between Leucocytozoon californicus and 20 other Leucocytozoon spp., as well as an outgroup (Plasmodium ashfordi). Genetic divergence is given as a percentage and was calculated using GTR + G distance analysis, based on 464 nucleotides of the cyt b gene. L. californicus is in bold type. (PDF 171 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erika Walther
    • 1
  • Gediminas Valkiūnas
    • 2
  • Elizabeth A. Wommack
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rauri C. K. Bowie
    • 3
  • Tatjana A. Iezhova
    • 2
  • Ravinder N. M. Sehgal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologySan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Nature Research CentreVilniusLithuania
  3. 3.Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  4. 4.University of Wyoming Museum of Vertebrates and Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of WyomingLaramieUSA

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