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Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae

Abstract

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

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Acknowledgments

This study is a research collaboration between Department of Plant Production Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand, and US Army Medical Component-Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (USAMC-AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand. We thank Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, and The National Research Council of Thailand for providing financial assistance. We greatly appreciate all efforts of the laboratory staffs at insectary section, the Department of Entomology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand, for providing the mosquito eggs. We also wish to express our gratitude to MAJ Silas A. Davidson, Chief of Entomology Department, AFRIMS, for reviewing and comments on the manuscript. The views expressed in this article are those of the author (s) and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Governments

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Correspondence to Siriporn Phasomkusolsil.

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Soonwera, M., Phasomkusolsil, S. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae. Parasitol Res 115, 1691–1703 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-4910-z

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Keywords

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Anopheles dirus
  • Cymbopogon citratus
  • Syzygium aromaticum
  • Larvicide
  • Morphological aberrations