Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors
- 990 Downloads
Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12 %), α-pinene (19.38 %) and β-caryophyllene (18.42 %). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90 % lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.
KeywordsAedes albopictus Anopheles subpictus Culex tritaeniorhynchus Culicidae GC-MS Mosquito-borne diseases Plant-borne larvicides
The authors would like to thank the professor and head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, for the laboratory facilities provided. We also acknowledge the cooperation of the staff members of the VCRC (ICMR), Pondicherry.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Giovanni Benelli is an Editorial Board Member of Parasitology Research. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the Parasitology Research policies on sharing data and materials.
- Amer A, Mehlhorn H(2006a) Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99:478–490Google Scholar
- Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006b) The sensilla of Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and their importance in repellency. Parasitol Res 99:491–499Google Scholar
- Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006c) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol Res 99:466–472Google Scholar
- Amer A,Mehlhorn H (2006d) Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions. Parasitol Res 99:473–477Google Scholar
- Benelli G (2016) Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4800-9
- Benelli G, Bedini S, Cosci F, Toniolo C, Conti B, Nicoletti M (2015a) Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites. Parasitol Res 114:227–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benelli G, Bedini S, Flamini G, Cosci F, Cioni PL, Amira S, Benchikh F, Laouer H, Di Giuseppe G, Conti B (2015b) Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies. Parasitol Res 114(3):1011–1021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 68–72Google Scholar
- Govindarajan M (2013) Chemical composition and mosquitocidal potential of Mentha spicata (Linn.) essential. In: Govil JN, Bhattacharya S (eds) Recent progress in medicinal plants: essential oil III and phytopharmacology. Studium, USA, pp 153–172Google Scholar
- Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Veerakumar K (2013b) Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112(11):3713–3721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mehlhorn H (2011) Nature helps. How plants and other organisms contribute to solve health problems, Parasitology Research Monographs. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–372Google Scholar
- Murugan K, Vadivalagan C, Karthika P, Panneerselvam C, Paulpandi M, Subramaniam J,Wei H, Al Thabiani A, Saleh Alsalhi M, Devanesan S, Nicoletti M, Paramasivan R, Parajulee MN, Benelli G (2016) DNA barcoding and molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4726-2
- Othira JO, Onek LA, Deng LA, Omolo EO (2009) Insecticidal potency of H. spicigera preparations against Sitophilus zeamais (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on stored maize grains. Afr J Agric Res 4:187–192Google Scholar
- Pavela R, Kaffkova K, Kumsta M (2014) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from different Mentha L. and Pulegium species against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant Prot Sci 50:36–42Google Scholar
- Sujitha V, Murugan K, Paulpandi M, Panneerselvam C, Suresh U, Roni M, Nicoletti M, Higuchi A, Madhiyazhagan P, Subramaniam J, Dinesh D, Vadivalagan C, Chandramohan B, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Barnard DR, Benelli G (2015) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res 114(9):3315–3325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wattanachai P, Tintanon B (1999) Resistance of Aedes aegypti to chemical compounds in aerosol insecticide products in different areas of Bangkok, Thailand. Commun Dis J 25:188–191Google Scholar
- WHO (2015) Dengue and severe dengue. World Health Organization, Geneva, Fact sheet No. 117Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. Communicable disease control, prevention and eradication, WHO pesticide evaluation scheme. WHO, Geneva, WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/1.3Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (2014) A global brief on vector-borne diseases. WHO/DCO/WHD/2014.1Google Scholar