Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Incidence of myiasis among humans—a review

  • Review
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Myiasis, the infestation of tissues of live humans and other vertebrate animals with dipteran larvae (maggots), is a phenomenon of widespread occurrence throughout the tropical regions of the world. It is commonly seen in domestic and wild animals but occurs rarely in man also. The tissue invasion in man by maggots is generally a well-recognized complication of neglected wounds. The condition may be asymptomatic but occasionally results in more or less severe problems and even death when larvae invade body cavities or areas that forbid their direct visual examination. Many cases of myiasis, however, usually do not reach the attention of medical practitioners because of the tendency of the mature larvae to migrate out of the lesion for pupation. In the present study, the authors reviewed the past literature describing the cases of human myiasis, causative fly species and predisposing factors for the onset of the same. The aim of the present manuscript is to provide a database for the future reference of medical entomologists, medical practitioners and veterinarians. Review of literature revealed that 37 fly species belonging to ten families were responsible worldwide for the onset of human myiasis. The incidence of myiasis among humans can be correlated to increasing fly populations, poor hygienic conditions and presence of domestic animals in the close vicinity. Other factors responsible for myiasis include neglected open wounds and foul-smelling discharge from natural body openings. Moreover, ignorance plays a key role in its occurrence since people are generally unaware about the actual cause and often correlate the condition to their superstitious beliefs. It is emphasized that the patients should not neglect their wounds and should take proper medical care; otherwise, myiasis may supervene.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abdo EN, Sette-Dias AC, Comunian CR, Dutra CEA, Aguiar EG (2006) Oral myiasis: a case report. Oral Med Pathol 11:130–131

    Google Scholar 

  • Achra A, Prakash P, Verma B, Amar A (2014) Unusual presentation of intestinal myiasis due to Musca domestica: a report of two cases. Asian J Med Sci 6(1):124–126

  • Aggarwal A, Daniel MJ, Shetty RS, Kumar BN, Sumalatha CH, Srikanth E, Rai S, Malik R (2014) Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in anterior maxilla. Case Reports Dent. doi:10.1155/2014/518427

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguilar FJ, Labbe F, Robles R (1960) Considerations on nasal myiasis in Guatemala. Rev Col Med Guatemala 11:75–79

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad NW, Ismail A, Jeffery J, Ibrahim S, Hadi AA, Ibrahim MN, Chin HC, Lim LH (2009) Aural myiasis in a neonate in peninsular Malaysia. Parasit Vectors 2:63–65

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Amry M, Al-Saikhan FI, Al-Dahmash S (2014) External opthalmomyiasis: a case report. Saudi J Opthalmol 28(4):322–324. doi:10.1016/j.sjopt.2013.08.002

  • Alhady M, Zabri K, Chua CN (2008) Ophthalmomyiasis from Chrysomya bezziana (screwworm fly). Med J Malaysia 63:269–270

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alizadeh M, Mowlavi G, Kargar F, Nateghpour M, Akbarzadeh K, Hajenorouzali-Tehrani M (2014) A review of myiasis in Iran and a new nosocomial case from Tehran, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 8(2):124–131

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alsaif N, Liao S, Tse DT (2014). External ophthalmomyiasis due to Dermatobia hominis masquerading as orbital cellulitis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg PMID: 25226095 [Epub ahead of print]

  • Amr ZS, Amr BA, Abo-Shehada MN (1993) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis L. in the Ajloun area of northern Jordan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87:259–262

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aspock H (1972) Rectal myiasis due to Fannia canicularis (Linne) and Muscina stabulans (Fallen). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 97:1174–1175

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aydin E, Uysal S, Akkuzu B, Can F (2006) Nasal myiasis by fruit fly larvae: a case report. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 263:1142–1143

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Babamahmoudi F, Rafinejhad J, Enayati A (2012) Nasal myiasis due to Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) from Iran: a case report. Trop Biomed 29:175–179

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baker MC (1953) “Green-bottle fly worm” infestation of the ear. Myiasis of the ear caused by Phaenicia sericata. Laryngoscope 63:545

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Balcioglu IC, Ecemis T, Ayer A, Ozbel Y (2008) Subungual myiasis in a woman with psychiatric disturbance. Parasitol Int 57(4):509–511. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2008.04.014

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baruch E, Godel V, Lazar M, Gold D, Lengy J (1982) Severe external ophthalmomyiasis due to larvae of Wohlfahrtia sp. Israel J Med Sci 18:815–816

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Berenji F, Hosseini-Farash BR, Marvi-Moghadam N (2015) A case of secondary ophthalmomyiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae). J Arthropod-Borne Dis 9(1):125–130

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bayindir T, Miman O, Miman MC, Atambay M, Saki CE (2010) Bilateral aural myiasis (Wohlfahrtia magnifica): a case with chronic suppurative otitis media. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 34:65–67

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bhargava A, Bhargava M (1996) A case of oral myiasis. J Ind Dent Assoc 67:44

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhoyar SC, Mishra YC (1986) Oral myiasis caused by Diptera in epileptic patient. J Ind Dent Assoc 58:535–536

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bosaipo DS, Bosaipo CS, Bosaipo EP (2013) Nasal myiasis: case report and literature review. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 17(1):54

    Google Scholar 

  • Bozzo L, Lima IA, Almedia OP, Scully C (1992) Oral myiasis caused by Sarcophogidae in an extraction wound. Oral Surg 74:733–735

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Braverman I, Dano I, Saah D, Gapany B (1994) Aural myiasis caused by flesh fly larva, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis. J Otolaryngol 23:204–205

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Buettner H (2002) Ophthalmomyiasis interna. Arch Ophthalmol 120:1598–1599

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Butlin CR (1993) Comment: nasal myiasis in leprosy. Lepr Rev 64:172

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera RM (1951) A case of nasal myiasis in a subject with rhinolithiasis. Medicamenta (Madr) 9:79–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Casanova-Roman M, Sanchez-Legaza E, Sanchez-Porto A, Murga C (2010) Aural myiasis in an infant. Infez Med 18:175–176

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Caissie R, Beaulieu F, Giroux M, Berthod F, Landry PE (2008) Cutaneous myiasis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:560–568

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Casterline DG (1954) Nasal myiasis. California Med 81:38

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Causey OR (1938) Experimental intestinal myiasis. American J Hyg 28(3):48–486

    Google Scholar 

  • Cetinkaya M, Ozkan H, Koksal N, Coskun SZ, Hacimustafaoglu M, Girisgin O (2008) Neonatal myiasis: a case report. Turkish J Ped 50(6):581–584

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaiwong T, Tem-Eiam N, Limpavithayakul M, Boongunha N, Poolphol W, Sukontason KL (2014) Aural myiasis caused by Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) in Thailand. Trop Biomed 31:496–498

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Changon G, Leclerq M (1949) Myiases intestinale a Eristalis tenax L. (Diptera: Syrphidae) Rev Med Liege 4:634–635

  • Cheong WH,Mahadevan S, Joe LK (1973) A case of intestinalmyiasis in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 4(2):281

  • Chigusa Y, Kirinoki M, Yokoi H, Matsuda H, Okada K, Yamazaki S (1996) Two cases of wound myiasis due to Lucilia sericata and L. illustris (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Med Entomol Zool 47(1):73–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Chigusa Y, Matsumoto J, Kirinoki M, Kawai S, Matsuda H, Oikawa A, Sato T (1998) A case of wound myiasis due to Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a patient suffering from alcoholism and mental deterioration. Med Entomol Zool 49:125–127

    Google Scholar 

  • Chigusa Y, Shinonaga S, Koyama Y, Terano A, Kirinoki M, Matsuda H (2001) Suspected intestinal myiasis due to Dryomyza formosa in a Japanese schizophrenic patient with symptoms of delusional parasitosis. Med Vet Entomol 14(4):453–457

    Google Scholar 

  • Cho JH, Kim HB, Cho CS, Huh S, Ree HI (1999) An aural myiasis case in a 54-year-old male farmer in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 37:51–53

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chodosh J, Clarridge J (1992) Ophthalmomyiasis: a review with special reference to Cochliomyia hominivorax. Clin Infect Dis 14:444–449

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chodosh J, Clarridge JE, Matoba A (1991) Nosocomial conjunctival ophthalmomyiasis with Cochliomyia macellaria. American J Ophthalmol 111:520–521

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Choi W, Kim GE, Park SH, Shin SE, Park JH, Yoon KC (2015) First report of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen in a healthy patient without predisposing risk factors. Parasitol Int 64(5):281–283

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ciftcioglu N, Altintas K, Haberal M (1997) A case of human orotracheal myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Parasitol Res 83:34–36

  • Cipeng J (2002) A collective analysis of 54 cases of human myiasis in China from 1995–2001. Chinese Med J 115(10):1445–1447

    Google Scholar 

  • Clavel A, Toledo M, Goni P, Aspiroz C (2011) Intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax: report of a new case in Spain. New Microbiologia 34:335–336

  • Couppie P, Roussel M, Rabarison P, Sockeel MJ, Sainte-Marie D, Marty C, Carme B (2005) Nosocomial nasal myiasis owing to Cochliomyia hominivorax: a case in French Guiana. Int J Dermatol 44:302–303

  • Crumley WR, Rankin AJ, Dryden MW (2011) Ophthalmomyiasis externa in a puppy due to Cuterebra infestation. J American Anim Hosp Assoc 47:e150–e155

    Google Scholar 

  • Cucera A, Watzel C, Lang GK (2009) Ophthalmomyiasis externa due to Oestrus ovis a sheep botfly. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 226:189–190

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham DG, Zanga JR (1974) Myiasis of external auditory meatus. J Ped 84(6):857–858

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Curtis LC (1956) A case of aural myiasis in man. Canadian J Public Health 47:298–299

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davies DM (1976) Human aural myiasis: a case in Ontario, Canada, and a partial review. J Parasitol 62:124

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De TP, Pierre-Filho P, Minguini N, Pierre LM, Pierre AM (2004) Use of ivermectin in the treatment of orbital myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Scandinavian J Infect Dis 36:503–505

    Google Scholar 

  • Delgado E (2012) Symblepharon secondary to ophthalmomyiasis externa in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol 15:200–205

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Delhaes L, Bourel B, Pinatel F, Cailliez JC, Gosset D, Camus D, Dei-Cas E (2001) Human nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis. Parasite 8:289–296

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Delir S, Handjani F, Emad M, Ardehali S (1999) Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Clin Exp Dermatol 24:279–280

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Demirci M, Oguz H, Arslan N, Safak MA (2006) Aural myiasis. J Otolaryngol 35:192–193

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Denion E, Dalens PH, Couppie P, Aznar C, Sainte-Marie D, Carme B, Petitbon J, Pradinaud R, Gerard M (2004) External ophthalmomyiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis. A retrospective study of nine cases and a review of the literature. Acta Ophthalmol Scandinavia 82:576–584

    Google Scholar 

  • Dono M, Bertonati MR, Poggi R, Teneggi E, Maddalo F, Via F, Orlandi R, Maroli M, Roncella S, Fedeli F, Battolla E (2005) Three cases of ophthalmomyiasis externa by sheep botfly Oestrus ovis in Italy. New Microbiol 28:365–368

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dokur M, Eroglu F, Ipek DN, Ulutasdemir N (2015) Two different myiasis cases in southeast of Turkey: ophthalmomyiasis and cutaneous myiasis. Parasitol Res 114(7):2767–2770

  • Dubois E, Durieux M, Franchimont MM, Hermant P (2004) An unusual case in Belgium of intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax. Acta Clin Belg 59(3):168–170. doi:10.1179/acb.2004.025

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Edelmann ML, Lucio-Forster A, Kern TJ, Bowman DD, Ledbetter EC (2014) Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva. Vet Ophthalmol 17:448–453

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Einer H, Ellegard E (2011) Nasal myiasis by Oestrus ovis second stage larva in an immunocompetent man: case report and literature review. J Laryngol Otol 125:745–746

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • El-Badry AA, Salem HK, El-Aziz Edmardash YA (2014) Human urinary myiasis due to larvae of Clogmia (Telmatoscopus) albipunctata Williston (Diptera: Psychodidae) first report in Egypt. J Vector Borne Dis 5:247–249

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Boulaqi HA, Amin FM, Bassiouny GA, El-Rifaie SA (1983) Human aural myiasis in Cairo. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 13:547–550

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • El-Deeb NE, El-Matarawy OM, Ali AA, El-Rehimy HH, Boghdadi AM (1988) Human aural myiasis in Taif, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 18:129–132

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eldridge B, Edman JD (2004) Medical entomology—a textbook on public health and veterinary problems caused by arthropods. 2nd Edition, Springer

  • El-Kadery AA, El-Begermy MA (1989) Aural myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 19:751–753

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fathy FM, El-Barghathi A, El-Ahwal A, El-Bagar S (2006) Study on human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis larva, in Sirte-Libya: parasite features, clinical presentation and management. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36:265–282

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Favier G (1958) A case of oculo-nasal myiasis caused by Oestrus ovis and seen at Saoura (southern Oran). Arch Inst Pasteur Alger 36:182–183

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fawzy AF (1991) Otitis media and aural myiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21:883–885

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Furman DP (1953) Nasal myiasis caused by the primary screw-worm. Callitroga hominivorax (coquerel) Californian Med 79:244

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gealh WC, Ferreira GM, Farah GJ, Teodoro U, Camarini ET (2008) Treatment of oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax: two cases treated with ivermectin. British J Oral Maxillofac Surg 47(1):23-26

  • Georgalas I, Ladas I, Maselos S, Lymperopoulos K, Markomichelakis N (2011) Intraocular safari: ophthalmomyiasis interna. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 39:84–85

  • Ghavami MB, Djalilvand A (2015) First record of urinogenital myiasis induced by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) from Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 9(2):274–280

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomez RS, Perdigao PF, Pimenta FJGS, Rios Leite AC, Tanos de Lacerda JC, Custodio Neto AL (2003) Oral myiasis by screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax. British J Oral Maxillofac Surg 41:115–116

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez MM, Comte MG, Monardez PJ, de Valdés LMD, Matamala CI (2009) Miasis genital accidental por Eristalis tenax. Rev Chile Infect 26(3):270–272

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodman RL, Montalvo MA, Reed JB, Scribbick FW, McHugh CP, Beatty RL, Aviles R (2000) Photo essay: anterior orbital myiasis caused by human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). Arch Ophthalmol 118:1002–1003

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gozum N, Kir N, Ovali T (2003) Internal ophthalmomyiasis presenting as endophthalmitis associated with an intraocular foreign body. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imag 34:472–474

    Google Scholar 

  • Graffi S, Peretz A, Wilamowski A, Schnur H, Akad F, Naftali M (2013) External ophthalmomyiasis caused by a rare infesting larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma. Case report. Ophthalmol Med. doi:10.1155/2013/850865

    Google Scholar 

  • Grammer J, Erb C, Kamin G, Wild M, Riedinger C, Kosmidis P, Pleyer U, Thiel HJ (1995) Ophthalmomyiasis externa due to the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in Southwest Germany. Germany J Ophthalmol 4:188–195

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Groh MJ, Junemann A, Zilch R (1998) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis in Franconia. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 213:60–62

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gryseels B, Mertens DA, Mehl R (1991) An imported case of ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior in The Netherlands caused by a larva of the reindeer warble fly. J Infect Dis 163:931–932

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guerrini VH (1988) Ammonia toxicity and alkalosis in sheep infested by Lucilia cuprina larvae. Int J Parasitol 18:79–81

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta VP, Baveja UK (1988) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis. Indian J Ophthalmol 36:41–42

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hall M, Wall R (1995) Myiasis in humans and domestic animals. Adv Parasitol 35:257–312

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harris BP, Miller PE, Bloss JR, Pellitteri PJ (2000) Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior associated with Cuterebra sp. in a cat. J American Vet Med Assoc 216:352–355

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison BA, Pearson WG (1968) A case of aural myiasis caused by Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius). Mil Med 133:484–485

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harwood RF, James MT (1969) Entomology in human and animal health. Macmillan, New York, p 548

    Google Scholar 

  • Hasegawa H, Sekikawa H, Oka K, Hosokawa M (1979) A case of human myiasis in Nigata Prefecture. Japan Nigata Med J 93:612–614

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatten K, Gulleth Y, Meyer T, Eisenman DJ (2010) Myiasis of the external and middle ear. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 119:436–438

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hemanth V, Kumar CS, Manikandan D, Musarrat F, Preetham AP, Pualraj MG (2013) An unusual cause of late tracheostomy bleed. Case Reports Clin Med 2(4) doi: 10.4236/crcm.2013.24071

  • Hezarjaribi HZ, Taghvi M, Fakhar M, Seyrafi A, Enayti AA (2014) Vaginal myiasis due to Fannia scalaris. Int J Gynecol Obst 127:297–300

    Google Scholar 

  • Hira PR (1977) Rectal myiasis: first report on a case due to the rat-tailed larva of Eristalis tenax in Africa. East African Med J 54:224–226

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hira PR, Hajj B, Al-Ali F, Hall MJ (1993) Ophthalmomyiasis in Kuwait: first report of infections due to the larvae of Oestrus ovis before and after the Gulf conflict. J Trop Med Hyg 96:241–244

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hope FW (1840) On insects and their larvae occasionally found in the human body. Trans Royal Entomol Soc London 2:256–271

    Google Scholar 

  • Hopkins GHE (1944) Notes on myiasis especially in Uganda. East African Med J 21:258–265

  • Hunt EW Jr (1970) Unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior. American J Ophthalmol 70:978–980

    Google Scholar 

  • Husain S, Malaviya GN, Girdhar A, Sreevatsa GBK (1991) Nasal myiasis in leprosy. Lepr Rev 62:389–394

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jack RW (1937) Division of entomology: annual report for the year 1936. Rhod Agri J 34:570–590

  • Jain S, Audhya A, Nagpure PS (2008) Aural myiasis in a 1-day-old neonate. Indian J Med Sci 62:164–166

  • James MT (1947) The flies that cause myiasis in man. United States Department of Agriculture. Misc. Publication No. 63 Washington.

  • Jiang CP (2002) A collective analysis on 54 cases of human myiasis in China from 1995–2001. Chinese Med J 115(10):1445–1447

    Google Scholar 

  • Joseph B, Vyloppilli S, Ahsan A, Anirudhan A (2014) Extreme oral myiasis. Saudi Med J 35(9):1133–1135

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaczmarczyk D, Kopczynski J, Kwiecien J, Michalski M, Kurnatowski P (2011) The human aural myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata. Wiad Parazytol 57:27–30

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser E, Goutorbe P, Cantais E (2001) A surprising nosocomial pathology: nasal myiasis. Ann France Anesth Reanim 20:875–876

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kalezic T, Stojkovic M, Vukovic I, Spasic R, Andjelkovic M, Stanojlovic S, Bozic M, Dzamic A (2014) Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—green bottle fly. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:925–928

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kani A, Nakamura O, Ono H, Nagase K, Totani T, Morishita T, Kouya K, Iwata S (1981) A case of myiasis for papillary adenocarcinoma of parotid gland. Acta Dermatol (Kyoto) 76:173–177

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanta Sastri BL (1948) A case of nasal myiasis. Antiseptic 45:333–335

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaomrek J (1939) Konnen die Fleisch-fliegen eine myiasis intestinalis erzeugen. Verh VII internat. Konger Entomologie 3:1604–1607

  • Karabiber H, Oguzkurt DG, Dogan DG, Aktas, M, Selimoglu MA (2010) An unusual cause of rectal bleeding: intestinal myiasis J Paed Gasteroenterol Nut 51(4):530–531

  • Kasinathan A, Shanthini NF (2014) Uterovaginal prolapse with myiasis: a case report. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 3(2):477–478

  • Kearney MS, Nilssen AC, Lyslo A, Syrdalen P, Dannevig L (1991) Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva. J Clin Pathol 44:276–284

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Keller AP, Keller AP (1970) Myiasis of the middle ear. Laryngoscope 80:646–650

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kemmanu V, Mahendradas P, D’Souza PE, Yadav NK, Shetty B (2009) Unilateral acute conjunctivitis due to ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by larva of Oestrus ovis. J Paed Ophthalmol Strabismus 46:380–381

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan AAG, Shah KM (2013) Primary oral myiasis: a clinical presentation in cerebral palsy. Int J Case Reports Imag 4(2):95–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan- Ali FEA, Khan-Ali Z (1975) A case of traumatic myiasis in Quebec caused by Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Canadian J Zool 53(10):1772–1776

    Google Scholar 

  • Khayat RM (2002) A case report on oral myiasis in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dental J 14(3):140–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Khoumiri R, Gaboune L, Sayouti A, Benfdil N, Ouaggag B, Jellab B, Baha T, Moutaouakil A (2008) Ophthalmomyiasis interna: two case studies. J France Ophtalmol 31:299–302

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JS, Kim JW, Lee HJ, Lee IY, Oh SA, Seo M (2011) Ophthalmomyiasis caused by a Phormia sp (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larva in an enucleated patient. Korean J Parasitol 49:173–175

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JS, Seo PW, Kim JW, Go JH, Jang SC, Lee HJ, Seo M (2009) A nasal myiasis in a 76-year-old female in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 47:405–407

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kokcam I, Saki CE (2005) A case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. J Dermatol 32(6):459–463. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2005.tb00780.x

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kouya M, Ueno A (1977) A case of human myiasis of a patient suffering from basal cell carcinoma. Rinsho Derma (Tokyo) 19:465–468

    Google Scholar 

  • Lagace-Wiens PR, Dookeran R, Skinner S, Leicht R, Colwell DD, Galloway TD (2008) Human ophthalmomyiasis interna caused by Hypoderma tarandi in Northern Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 14:64–66

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lata J, Kapila BK, Aggarwal P (1996) Oral myiasis: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 25:455–456

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leclercq M, Laurent P (1973) Rectal myiasis with larvae of Fannia scalaris Fab. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Belgium. Rev Med Liege 28:27–28

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee HL (1985) A case of human oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, 1914 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia. J Malaysian Soc Health 5:65–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee HL, Yong YK (1991) Human aural myiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 22:274–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee YT, Chen TL, Lin YC, Fung CP, Cho WL (2011) Nosocomial nasal myiasis in an intubated patient. J Chinese Med Assoc 74:369–371

    Google Scholar 

  • Lori A, Zechini B, Cordier L, Lunogo E, Pontuale G, Perrsichino S (1999) A case of myiasis in man due to Wohlfahrtia magninifica (Schiner) recorded near Rome. Parasitologia 41(4):583–585

    Google Scholar 

  • Magliulo G, Gagliardi M, D’Amico R (2000) Human aural myiasis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122(5):777

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Magnarelli LA, Andreadis TG (1981) Human cases of furuncular, traumatic, and nasal myiasis in Connecticut. American J Trop Med Hyg 30:894–896

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maheshwari VJ, Naidu SG (2010) Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana: a case report. People’s J Scient Res 3(2):25–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Mashayekhi M, Ashtari B (2013) Study of Gasterophillus role in equine gastric ulcer syndrome in Tabriz area. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci 2(12):169–172

  • Massey RL, Rodriguez G (2002) Human scrotal myiasis: bot fly infestation. Urol Nurs 22(5):315–317

  • Mathai E, George JA, Lalitha MK, Raju R (1994) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis—a case report from south India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 37:205–207

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maurya RP, Mishra D, Bhushan P, Singh VP, Singh MK (2012) Orbital myiasis: due to invasion of larvae of flesh fly (Wohlfahrtia magnifica) in a child; rare presentation. Case report. Ophthalmol Med. doi:10.1155/2012/371498

    Google Scholar 

  • Medownick M, Lazarus M, Finkelstein E, Weiner JM (1985) Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the horse bot fly larva (Gasterophilus sp.). Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 13:387–390

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mehr Z, Powers NR, Konkol KA (1991) Myiasis in a wounded soldier returning from Panama. J Med Entomol 28(4):553–556

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mendivil JA, El Shammaa NA (1979) Aural myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax: case report. Mil Med 144:261–262

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mengi E, Demirhan E, Arslan IB (2014) Aural myiasis: a case report. North Clin Istanbul 1(3):175–177. doi:10.14744/nci.2014.96967

    Google Scholar 

  • Mikkola K, Silvennoinen J, Hackman W (1982) The elk throat bot fly causing human ophthalmomyiasis. Duodecim 98:1022–1025

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Misra N, Gogri P, Misra S, Singh A, Ingale A (2013) Orbital myiasis caused by green bottle fly. Australas Med J 6:504–506

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miura M, Hayasaka S, Yamada T, Hayasaka Y, Kamimura K (2005) Ophthalmomyiasis caused by larvae of Boettcherisca peregrina. Japnese J Ophthalmol 49:177–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Morris B (1987) First reported case of human aural myiasis caused by the flesh fly Parasarcophaga crassipalpis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). J Parasitol 73:1068–1069

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morris B, Weinstein P (1986) A case of aural myiasis in Australia. Med J Aust 145:634–635

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mumcuoglu I, Aral Akarsu G, Balaban N, Keles I (2005) Eristalis tenax as a cause of urinary myiasis. Scandinavian J Infect Dis 37(11–12):942–943

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mumcuoglu KY, Eliashar R (2011) Nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae in Israel. Israel Med Assoc J 13:379–380

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayyar E, Omprakash N (1978) Dipterous larvae from seven cases of human myiasis. J All India Inst Med Sci 1:85–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Nazni WA, Jeffery J, Lee HL, Lailatul AM, Chew WK, Heo CC, Sadiyah I, Khairul AM, Heah SK, Mohd HH (2011) Nosocomial nasal myiasis in an intensive care unit. Malaysian J Pathol 33:53–56

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nene AS, Mishra A, Dhand P (2015) Ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana—a case report. Clin Ophthalmol 9:423–427

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nevill EM, Basson PA, Schoonraad JH, Swanepoel K (1969) A case of nasal myiasis caused by the larvae of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston) 1893 (Diptera: Psychodidae). South African Med J 43:512–514

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ng KHL, Yip KT, Que TL (2003) A case of oral myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. Hong Kong Med J 9(6):454–456

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nitzulescu V, Niculescu M, Chissim T (1966) Considerations on a case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by larvae of Oestrus ovis. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 41:379–386

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oguz U, Resorlu B, Cizmeci Z, Unsal A (2012) A rare urinogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis: a case report. Turkish J Urol 38(3):168–169. doi:10.5152/tud.2012.035

    Google Scholar 

  • Ollivier FJ, Barrie KP, Mames RN, Kallberg ME, Greiner EC, Plummer CE, Gelatt KN, Strubbe DT, Brooks DE (2006) Pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol 9:259–264

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oluwatosin MA, Fadahunsi IF (2003) Cutaneous and intestinal myiasis in Lagelu L.G.A of Oyo State. African J Clin Exp Microbiol 4(1):44–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Osorio J, Moncada L, Molano A, Valderrama S, Gualtero S, Franco-Paredes C (2006) Role of ivermectin in the treatment of severe orbital myiasis due to Cochliomyia hominivorax. Clin Infect Dis 43:e57–e59

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parkinson RJ, Robinson S, Lessells R, Lemberger J (2008) Fly caught in foreskin: an usual case of preputial myiasis. Ann Royal Coll Surg England 90:1–2

    Google Scholar 

  • Parwani RN, Patidar KA, Parwani SR, Wanjari SP (2014) Exuberant oral myiasis caused by Musca domestica. J Glob Inf Dis 6(1):35–38

    Google Scholar 

  • Passos MRL, Varella RQ, Tavares RR, Barreto NA, Santos CCC, Pinheiro VMS, Bravo RS, Morelhi MHL (2002) Vulvar myiasis during pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 10:153–158

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Passos MRL, Ferreira DC, Arze WNC, Silva JCS, Passos FDL, Curvelo JAR (2008) Penile myiasis as a differential diagnosis for genital ulcer: a case report. Brazilian J Infect Dis 12(2):155–157

    Google Scholar 

  • Passos MRL, Barreto NA, Varella RQ, Rodrigues GHS, Lewis DA (2004) Penile myiasis: a case report. Sex Transm Infect 80:183–184

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pereira T, Tamagadge AP, Chande MS, Bhalerao S, Tamagadge S (2010) Oral myiasis. Contemp Clinl Dent 1(4):275–276

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen CS, Zachariae C (1999) Acute balanoposthitis caused by infestation with Cordylobia anthropophaga. Acta Derm Venerol 79(2):170

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Price KM, Murchison AP, Bernardino CR, Kang SJ, Grossniklaus HE (2007) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Dermatobia hominis in Florida. British J Ophthalmol 91:695

    Google Scholar 

  • Qin J, Liu J, Long H (2012) A case report of nasal myiasis. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 26:955–956

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Quesada P, Navarrete ML, Maeso J (1990) Nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae. European Arch Otorhinolaryngol 247:131–132

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Radhakrishnan R, Srinivasan S, Krishnamoorthy K, Sabesan S, Pani SP (1994) Myiasis in filarial lymphaedemea due to Chrysomya bezziana. National Med J India 7:117–118

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ramanujam K (1992) Comment: nasal myiasis in leprosy. Lepr Rev 63:295

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rastegaev I (1980) Ophthalmomyiasis with parasitization by larvae of the Russian gadfly. Oftalmol Zh 35:444–445

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rathi S, Pednekar K, Pathak A, Singh P (2014) Screw-worm myiasis of prolapsed rectum. Indian Paediatrics 51:53–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Roubaud E (1914) Etudes sur la faune parasitaire de l’Afrique occidentale française. 1er fasc. : Les producteurs de myiases et agents similaires chez l’homme et les animaux. Larose, Paris

  • Rukke BA, Cholidis S, Johnsen A, Ottesen P (2014) Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding. Acta Parasitol 59:301–304

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Salimi M, Edalat H, Jourabchi A, Oshaghi M (2010a) First report of human nasal myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax in Iran (Diptera: Syrphidae). Iranian J Arthropod-Borne Dis 4:77–80

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salimi M, Goodarzi D, Karimfar MH, Edalat H (2010b) Human urinogenital myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Markazi province of Iran. Iranian J Arthropod-Borne Dis 4(1):72–76

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Saraiva VS, Amaro MH, Belfort R Jr, Burnier MN Jr (2006) A case of anterior internal ophthalmomyiasis: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol 69:741–743

    Google Scholar 

  • Schnur HJ, Zivotofsky D, Wilamowski A (2009) Myiasis in domestic animals in Israel. Vet Parasitol 161:352–355

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Scnneider TS, Cherubini K, Yurgel LS, Salum F, Figueiredo MA (2007) Oral myiasis—a case report. J Oral Sci 49(1):85–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Sehgal R, Bhatti HPS, Bhasin DK, Sood AK, Nada R, Malla N, Singh K (2002) Intestinal myiasis due to Musca domestica. A report of two cases. Japanese J Inf Dis 55(6):191–193

  • Sergent E (1952) Geographic distribution of thimni, oculo-nasal myiasis in man caused by Oestrus ovis. Bull Acad Natl Med 136:519–520

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shankar MK, Diddapur SK, Nadagir SD, Kota SG (2012) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis. J Lab Physicians 4:43–44

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sharan R, Isser DK (1978) Aural myiasis. J Laryngol Otol 92:705–708

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sharifipour F, Feghhi M (2008) Anterior ophthalmomyiasis interna: an ophthalmic emergency. Arch Ophthalmol 126:1466–1467

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sherman RA (2000) Wound myiasis in urban and suburban United States. Arch Internal Med 160(13):2004–2014

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sheveleva LN (1963) A case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by the gadfly larva. Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana 23:75–77

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shitara A (1989) A case of squamous cell carcinoma with myiasis. Rinsho Derma (Tokyo) 31:842–843

    Google Scholar 

  • Shivekar S, Senthil K, Srinivasan R, Sureshbabu L, Chand P, Shanmugam J, Gopal R (2008) Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans. Indian J Med Microbiol 26(1):83–85

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singh PK, Singh S, Prakash P, Singh M, Shekhawat SS, Bhargav G (2010) External ophthalmomyiasis caused by Musca fly larva in the Thar Desert. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor 3:141–143

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singh A, Singh D (2006) Wound myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in patients of diabetic foot. J Entomol Res 30(4):367–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh A, Singh D, Jindal RK (2011) Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a causative agent of myiasis in patients suffering from oral cancer. J Entomol Res 30(4):187–189

    Google Scholar 

  • Singhal S, Bhugra P (2015) Vulvar myiasis: a rare case report. Int J Case Rep Images 6(2):108–110. doi:10.5348/ijcri-201521-CR-10482

    Google Scholar 

  • Skibsted R, Larsen M, Gomme G (1995) Nasal myiasis. Ugeskr Laeger 157:2158–2160

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith DR, Clevenger RR (1986) Nosocomial nasal myiasis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110:439–440

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Soni NK (2000) Endoscopy in nasal myiasis. Trop Doct 30:225–227

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stiles J, Rankin A (2006) Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a cat: surgical resolution. Vet Ophthalmol 9:165–168

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Syrdalen P, Nitter T, Mehl R (1982) Ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior: report of case caused by the reindeer warble fly larva and review of previous reported cases. British J Ophthalmol 66(9):589–593. doi:10.1136/bjo.66.9.589

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taba KE, Vanchiere JA, Kavanaugh AS, Lusk JD, Smith MB (2012) Successful treatment of ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior with ivermectin. Retin Cases Brief Rep 6:91–94

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tachibana H, Sasao M, Tanaka T, Nagakura K, Kaneda Y, Shinonaga S, Kano R (1988) A case of intestinal myiasis in Japan. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 12(5–6):349–352

    Google Scholar 

  • Tavares AJ, Barros R, Favorito LA (2007) Urgent penectomy in a patient presenting with epidermoid carcinoma of the penis associated to myiasis. Int Brazilian J Urol 33(4):521–522

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylan-Ozkan A, Babur C, Kilic S, Nalbantoglu S, Dalkilic I, Mumcuoglu KY (2004) Urinogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera) in Turkey. Int J Dermatol 43:904–905

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor HM (1950) Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) infestation in man. Ann Otol 59:531

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ticho A (1923) Ophthalmomyiasis. British J Ophthalmol 7:254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thyssen PJ, Nassu MP, Costella AM, Costella ML (2012) Record of oral myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae): case evidencing negligence in the treatment of incapable. Parasitol Res 111:957–959

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tu WC, Chen HC, Chen KM, Tang LC, Lai SC (2007) Intestinal myiasis caused by larvae of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus in a Taiwanese man. J Clin Gasteroenterol 41(4):400–402

    Google Scholar 

  • Unat EK, Karatay S (1968) A case of nasal myiasis. Tip Fak Mecm 30:437–440

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uni S, Shinonaga S, Nishio Y, Fukunaga A, Iseki M, Okamoto T, Ueda N, Miki T (1999) Ophthalmomyiasis caused by Sarcophaga crassipalpis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in a hospital patient. J Med Entomol 36:906–908

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uzun L, Cinar F, Beder LB, Aslan T, Altintas K (2004) Radial mastoidectomy cavity myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. J Laryngol Otol 118:54–56

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Varledzides E, Tsilighiris E, Mourgelas C (1981) Ear myiasis. Case report. Panminerva Med 23:43–46

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Veraldi S, Serini SM, Süss L (2014) Three cases of cutaneous myiasis caused by Cordylobia rodhaini. J Infect Dev Ctries 8(2):249–251. doi:10.3855/jidc.3825

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verma L, Pakrasi S, Kumar A, Sachdev MS, Mandal AK (1990) External ophthalmomyiasis associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Canadian J Ophthalmol 25:42–43

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vogt R, Holzmann T, Jagle H (2015) Ophthalmomyiasis externa. Ophthalmologe 112:61–63

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wadhwa V, Kharbanda P, Rai S, Uppal B (2006) Urinogenital myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. Indian J Med Microbiol 24(1):70–71

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wakamatsu TH, Pierre-Filho PT (2006) Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Dermatobia hominis: a successful treatment with oral ivermectin. Eye (Lond) 20:1088–1090

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wall R, Shearer D (1997) Veterinary parasitology—arthropod ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Chapman and Hall, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinand FS, Bauer C (2001) Ophthalmomyiasis externa acquired in Germany: case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmologica 215:383–386

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Werminghaus P, Hoffmann TK, Mehlhorn H, Bas M (2008) Aural myiasis in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 265:851–853

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • West LS (1951) The housefly: its natural history, medical importance and control. Comstock, New York, p 584

    Google Scholar 

  • Yalcinkaya F (1976) A case of nasal myiasis caused by the larvae of the drone fly. Turk Hij Deney Biyol Derg 36:40–44

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yazgi H, Uyanik MH, Yoruk O, Aslan I (2009) Aural myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica: case report. Eurasian J Med 41:194–196

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yeruman S, Malnick S, Bass D, Rosen S (1997) An apparently pharyngeal myiasis in a patient caused by Oestrus ovis (Oestridae: Diptera). Acta Trop 68:361–363

    Google Scholar 

  • Yilmaz H, Kotan C, Akdeniz H, Buzgan T (1999) Gastric myiasis due to Oestrus species in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report. Eastern J Med 4(2):80–81

    Google Scholar 

  • Youssefi MR, Sefidgar SAA, Tabari MA (2010) First report of intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Iran. Iranian J Parasitol 5(2):77–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Yuca K, Caksen H, Sakin YF, Yuca SA, Kiris M, Yilmaz H, Cankaya H (2005) Aural myiasis in children and literature review. Tohoku J Exp Med 206:125–130

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zammarchi L, Giorni A, Gabrielli S, Strohmeyer M, Cancrini G, Bartoloni A (2014) Human oestriasis acquired in Florence and review on human myiasis in Italy. Parasitol Res 113:2379–2385

  • Zardi EM, Iori A, Picardi A, Costantino S, Petrarca V (2003) Myiasis of a perineal fistula. Parasitologia 44(3–4):201–202

  • Zumpt F (1951) Myiasis in man and animals in Africa. South African J Clin Sci 2(1):38–69

  • Zumpt F (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the old world. Butterworths, London, p 267

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amandeep Singh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, A., Singh, Z. Incidence of myiasis among humans—a review. Parasitol Res 114, 3183–3199 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4620-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4620-y

Keywords

Navigation