Laboratory Evaluation of the Efficacy of 10 % Imidacloprid + 2.5 % Moxidectin Topical Solution (Advantage® Multi, Advocate®) for the Treatment of Dirofilaria immitis Circulating Microfilariae in Dogs


This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender® spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed.


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Correspondence to Dwight D. Bowman.

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Bowman, D.D., Charles, S.D., Arther, R.G. et al. Laboratory Evaluation of the Efficacy of 10 % Imidacloprid + 2.5 % Moxidectin Topical Solution (Advantage® Multi, Advocate®) for the Treatment of Dirofilaria immitis Circulating Microfilariae in Dogs. Parasitol Res 114, 165–174 (2015).

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  • Imidacloprid
  • Macrocyclic Lactone
  • Moxidectin
  • Emodepside
  • Heartworm Disease