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Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Issue 4, pp 1473–1483 | Cite as

Cytogenetics of Aspidogaster limacoides (Trematoda, Aspidogastrea): karyotype, spermatocyte division, and genome size

  • Marta Bombarová
  • Marta Špakulová
  • Martin Kello
  • Petr Nguyen
  • Eva Bazsalovicsová
  • Ivica Králová-Hromadová
Original Paper

Abstract

A detailed cytogenetic analysis of the aspidogastrean fluke Aspidogaster limacoides revealed a karyotype consisting of six medium-sized chromosome pairs. The first and the last pairs were two-armed while four remaining were one-armed; 2n = 12, n = 1 m + 1 m − sm + 4a. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe detected a single cluster of ribosomal genes (NOR) located in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of the third chromosome pair in a site of secondary constriction apparent in meiotic prophase, especially in diplotene. The silver nitrate staining showed only a single active NOR site on one of homologous chromosomes in the majority of spermatogonia and spermatocyte divisions. A course of meiosis corresponded to standard schemes. The nucleolus was apparent in early meiotic spermatocytes and disintegrated by the end of pachytene. For the first time in Aspidogastrea, the genome size was determined. The flow cytometry showed 1.21 pg DNA per haploid nucleus in A. limacoides which is in accordance with relatively low genome sizes of other flukes and tapeworms (Neodermata). A comparison of cytogenetic data available to date in the fluke sister groups Aspidogastrea and Digenea suggests that the lower chromosome number of Aspidogastrea might represent an ancestral condition and their split might have been accompanied by an increase in chromosome number via either chromosome fissions or paleopolyploidy.

Keywords

Fluke Chromosome Meiosis Fluorescent in situ hybridization C value Evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank to František Marec (the Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre ASCR, České Budějovice, CR) for kind help and providing facilities during research stays of M.B. We are indebted to M. Oros and V. Hanzelová (the Institute of Parasitology SAS, Košice, SR) for their help with collecting the material, as well as to M. Farský from the Slovak Fishing Association Štúrovo, SR, for a kind provision of fish. The work was supported by the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA under contract no. 2/0168/13. P.N. was supported by Grant 14-35819P of the Czech Science Foundation. M.K. was supported (50 %) by the project “Medicínsky univerzitný park v Košiciach” (MediPark, Košice) ITMS: 26220220185 (95 %) based on the support of the Operational Programme Research and Development (OP VaV-2012/2.2/08-RO) (contract no. OPVaV/12/2013). The publication has also been created within realization of the project Centre of Excellence for Parasitology (Code ITMS: 26220120022), based on the support of the Operational Programme “Research and Development” funded from the European Fund of Regional Development (rate 0.2).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Bombarová
    • 1
  • Marta Špakulová
    • 1
  • Martin Kello
    • 2
  • Petr Nguyen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Eva Bazsalovicsová
    • 1
  • Ivica Králová-Hromadová
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologySlovak Academy of SciencesKošiceSlovakia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicinePavol Jozef Šafárik UniversityKošiceSlovakia
  3. 3.Institute of EntomologyBiology Centre AS CR, v.v.iČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  4. 4.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South Bohemia in České BudějoviceČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

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