Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata
- 472 Downloads
The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata.
KeywordsKudoa septempunctata Sporoplasm release Food-borne illness Glucose
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2013R1A6A3A03063215).
- Ferruzza S, Rossi C, Sambuy Y, Scarino ML (2013) Serum-reduced and serum-free media for differentiation of Caco-2 cells. ALTEX-Altern Anim Exp 30:159–168Google Scholar
- Harada T, Kawai T, Sato H, Yokoyama H, Kumeda Y (2012) Development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Int J Food Microbiol 156:161–167. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.03.018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jeon CH, Wi S, Song JY, Choi HS, Kim JH (2014) Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Parasitol Res 113:1759–1767. doi: 10.1007/s00436-014-3821-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kawai T, Sekizuka T, Yahata Y, Kuroda M, Kumeda Y, Iijima Y, Kamata Y, Sugita-Konishi Y, Ohnishi T (2012) Identification of Kudoa septempunctata as the causative agent of novel food poisoning outbreaks in Japan by consumption of Paralichthys olivaceus in raw fish. Clin Infect Dis 54:1046–1052. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir1040 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okano S, Hurley DJ, Vandenplas ML, Moore JN (2006) Effect of fetal bovine serum and heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum on microbial cell wall-induced expression of procoagulant activity by equine and canine mononuclear cells in vitro. Am J Vet Res 67:1020–1024. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.67.6.1020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang S, Kingsley RA, Santos RL, Andrews-Polymenis H, Raffatellu M, Figueiredo J, Nunes J, Tsolis RM, Adams LG, Baumler AJ (2003) Molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium-induced diarrhea. Infect Immun 71:1–12. doi: 10.1128/iai. 71.1.1-12.2003 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar