Parasitology Research

, Volume 113, Issue 3, pp 911–918 | Cite as

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa

  • Brianna M. Williams
  • Are Berentsen
  • Barbara C. Shock
  • Maria Teixiera
  • Michael R. Dunbar
  • Matthew S. Becker
  • Michael J. YabsleyEmail author
Original Paper


A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38–61 %) and in domestic dogs (13 %). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife.


Canis Babesia Canine Distemper Virus Wild Carnivore Spotted Hyena 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Funding for SLNP and LP work was provided from Worldwide Fund for Nature—Netherlands, African Parks Network, Painted Dog Conservation Inc., and the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Additional support was provided to SCWDS by the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act (50 Stat. 917) and through sponsorship from member fish and wildlife agencies. The authors thank the Zambia Wildlife Authority and Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development for their permission and collaboration in this research and C. Mulipukwa for field assistance.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no knowledge of a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brianna M. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  • Are Berentsen
    • 3
  • Barbara C. Shock
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Teixiera
    • 2
    • 4
  • Michael R. Dunbar
    • 3
  • Matthew S. Becker
    • 5
  • Michael J. Yabsley
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease StudyCollege of Veterinary Medicine, University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.USDA/APHIS/WS/National Wildlife Research CenterFort CollinsUSA
  4. 4.Federal University of Mato Grosso do SulCampo GrandeBrazil
  5. 5.Zambian Carnivore Programme, Zambia and Department of EcologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

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