In vitro control of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator, with doramectin, lavender, camphor, and onion oils

Abstract

Camels are very important livestock particularly in arid and semiarid lands. The oestrid fly, Cephalopina titillator (Clark), causes nasopharyngeal myiasis in camels, and it is widely distributed in many camel breeding areas triggering health hazards and severe economic losses in camels. The prevalence of infestation of camels (slaughtered at Tokh’s slaughterhouse, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from September 2011 to March 2012) was 41.67 % (100 out of 240). Most infested camels developed clinical signs of nasal discharge, restlessness, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing, frequent sneezing, and snoring. Postmortem examination of infested camels explained that breathing of the animal is greatly impaired because of blockage of the nasopharynx by larvae and/or mucofibrinous secretions. The larval count per camel ranged from 1 to 250 (mean 28.45 ± 6.48). In vitro larval immersion tests were carried out to determine the efficacy of doramectin (0.003 %) as well as some essential oils (50 % each) such as lavender, camphor, and onion oils against the second and third larval stages (L2 and L3) of C. titillator. Another trial had been done for imitating what could happen if the area around camels were treated with an insecticide or an insect repellent. All treated L2 died 18 h posttreatment (PT) with both doramectin and lavender, and 100 % mortality was reached for L3 after 24 and 30 h PT with lavender and doramectin, respectively. Doramectin and lavender induced the highest response against C. titillator as their lethal time (LT50) values after treatment of L2 were 3.40 and 3.60 h, respectively, and those of L3 were 4.99 and 5.53 h, respectively. Against both L2 and L3 of C. titillator and based on LT50 values of onion oil and those of other applied materials, doramectin and lavender oil were four times more effective than onion oil, and camphor oil was two times more effective than onion oil. Based on LT50 values of essential oils and those of doramectin, as a reference substance, the relative speed of efficacy indicated that camphor and onion oils were, respectively, two and four times less effective than doramectin and lavender. With regard to fumigant technique, neither the insecticide, New Pyrosol®, nor the insect repellent, Keto®, was effective in controlling C. titillator larvae. Our results indicated that doramectin and lavender could be selected as drugs of choice for controlling C. titillator, but it is not permitted to use doramectin on dairy animals during lactation. Lavender (50 %) has a great potential to be developed as a novel larvicide and could be used as nasal drench against nasal botfly which will reflect on camel production and the national economy.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. Dr. Azza A. Moustafa, Research Institute of Medical Entomology, Dokky, Giza, Egypt, and Dr. Ali. M. Ali, Pharmacology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Benha Branch, Egypt, for their support and valuable advice.

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Correspondence to Hanem F. Khater.

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Khater, H.F., Ramadan, M.Y. & Mageid, A.D.A. In vitro control of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator, with doramectin, lavender, camphor, and onion oils. Parasitol Res 112, 2503–2510 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3415-2

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Keywords

  • Camphor
  • Ivermectin
  • Abamectin
  • Macrocyclic Lactone
  • Insect Repellent