Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)
Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.
KeywordsEugenol Linalool Cumin Methyl Eugenol Acaricidal Activity
The authors thank Winston Smith and Maritza Estela Piña Zavala for critical reading of this work.
All experiments comply with the current laws of Mexico.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aguirre EJ, Aburto S (1983) Determinación de las concentraciones discriminantes como medio de diagnóstico de susceptibilidad en garrapatas. B. microplus. In: IV Reunión Anual de Parasitología Veterinaria, México, D.F., 2–6 de septiembre de 1983, pp 6–10Google Scholar
- Brown HA, Minott DA, Ingram CW, Williams LAD (1998) Biological activities of the extracts and constituents of pimento, Pimenta dioica L. against the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. Insect Sci Appl 18:9–16Google Scholar
- Chittihunsa T, Samngamnim N (1999) Studies on the effects of some crude plant extracts to the mortality and feeding behavior of Nephotettix virescens. In: Oates CG (ed) The 37th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 3–5 February 1999. Text and J Publication Co, Ltd., pp 70–77Google Scholar
- Garcia-Fajardo J, Martinez-Sosa M, Estarron-Espinosa M, Vilarem G, De Santos J (1997) Comparative study of the oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Mexican pimento (Pimenta dioica Merrill). J Essent Oil Res 9:181–185Google Scholar
- Jennings W, Shibamoto T (1980) Qualitative analysis of flavor and fragrance volatiles by glass capillary gas chromatography. Appendix III, Retention indices in increasing order on polyethylene glycol carbowax 20 M. Academic, New York, p 472Google Scholar
- Pamo TE, Tendonkeng F, Kana JR, Tenekeu G, Tapondjou LA, Payne VK (2004) The acaricidal effect of the essential oil of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. flowers on ticks (Rhipicephalus lunulatus) in Cameroon. S Afr J Anim Sci 34:244–247Google Scholar
- Park IK, Kim JN, Lee YS, Lee SG, Ahn YJ, Shin SC (2008) Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). J Econ Entomol 39:275–279Google Scholar
- Rao MS, Pratibh G, Korwar GR (2000) Evaluation of aromatic oils against Helicoverpa armigera. Ann Plant Prot Sci 8:236–238Google Scholar
- Rodriguez-Vivas RI, Alonso-Díaz MA, Rodríguez-Arevalo F, Fragoso-Sanchez H, Santamaría VM, Rosario-Cruz R (2006a) Prevalence and potential risk factors for organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Boophilus microplus ticks on cattle ranches from the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Vet Parasitol 136:335–342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Vivas RI, Rodríguez-Arevalo F, Alonso-Díaz MA, Fragoso-Sanchez H, Santamaría VM, Rosario-Cruz R (2006b) Prevalence and potential risk factors for amitraz resistance in Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle farms in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Prev Vet Med 75:280–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosario-Cruz R, Guerrero FD, Miller RJ, Rodriguez-Vivas RI, Domínguez-García DI, Cornel AJ, Hernandez-Ortiz R, George JE (2005) Roles played by esterase activity and by a sodium channel mutation involved in pyrethroid resistance in populations of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Yucatan, Mexico. J Med Entomol 42:1020–1025CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seo MI, Kim J, Lee SG, Shin CH, Shin SC, Park IL (2009) Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica), caraway (Carum carvi), dill (Anethum graveolens), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), and litsea (Litsea cubeba) oils against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric Food Chem 57:6596–6602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar