Studies on monieziasis of sheep I. Prevalence and antihelminthic effects of some plant extracts, a light and electron microscopic study

Abstract

Out of 2,343 examined sheep throughout the whole year, 271 were found to be infected with tapeworms (11.5%). The highest infection rate (22.1%) was recorded in autumn, while the lowest (6%) occurred in summer. Six species of cestodes were identified according to their prevalence: Moniezia expansa (74%), Moniezia denticulata (8.5%), Moniezia benedeni (4.8%), Moniezia trigonophora (2.7%), and Thysaniezia giardi (2.7%), T. giardi was recorded in Egypt for the first time. M. expansa was found throughout the year with two peaks in January (92.3%) and June (88.5%). SEM examination revealed that M. expansa scolex has four triangular suckers guarded by an X-shaped fibrous band that makes them open permanently. Also, there is a Y-shaped apical part at the scolex center which may be an embryonically non-developed rostellum. The whole worm body surface is covered with unidirectional microtriches. TEM showed that the tegument is underlaid by a thick fibrous interstitial layer below which an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscular layer are arranged. Beneath these structures the subtegumental cells are found which have spherical electron-dense inclusions and various other cell organelles. Moreover, M. expansa has interproglottidal glands which contain secretory vesicles and secretions. For biological control of this parasite, different concentrations of crude plant extract of Artemisia cina were used in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the results indicated that the plant extract is efficacious at all concentrations tested. Electron microscopic examination showed that many structures of the treated worms were affected. The most affected sites were the scolex and the microtriches of the outer tegumental surface. In vivo, treatment of heavily infected animals showed an antihelminthic effect, since the complete absence of eggs was recorded 9 days after treatment when fecal investigations were done.

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Abbreviations

BL:

Basal lamina

BM:

Basement membrane

C:

Central core

CM:

Circular muscle layer

FL:

Fibrous layer

IF:

Internal fibrous band

IG:

Interproglottidal gland

LM:

Longitudinal muscle layer

M:

Microtriches

Mt:

Mitochondria

OT:

Outer tegumental layer

P:

Parenchyma

S:

Spine

SB:

Subtegumental layer (cells)

SC:

Suckers

SP:

Secretory products

T:

Tegument

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Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Faculty of Science, Cairo University and the Center of Excellence, Zoology department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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Correspondence to Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar.

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Bashtar, AR., Hassanein, M., Abdel-Ghaffar, F. et al. Studies on monieziasis of sheep I. Prevalence and antihelminthic effects of some plant extracts, a light and electron microscopic study. Parasitol Res 108, 177–186 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2060-2

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Keywords

  • Infected Sheep
  • Echinococcus Multilocularis
  • Tegumental Surface
  • Tegumental Cell
  • Treated Worm