Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Encephalitozoonosis in rabbits

  • Review
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including rodents, rabbits, horses, carnivores and humans, in which the organism is known as an opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. Nevertheless, the main host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit and infections usually have a sub-clinical course. However, severe disease is recognised in pet rabbits more frequently within the last years. As the central nervous system, the kidney and the eye are predilection organs for the organism, predominant histopathological alterations comprise granulomatous meningoencephalitis, chronical interstitial nephritis and phacoclastic uveitis. A definitive diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in vivo is difficult, but it is important for specific treatment and the determination of possible zoonotic risks. This review article covers epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, immunology, clinical signs, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ashton N, Cook C, Clegg F (1976) Encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) causing bilateral cataract in a rabbit. Br J Ophthal 60:618–631

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baneux PJR, Pognan F (2003) In utero transmission of Encephalitozoon cuniculi strain type I in rabbits. Lab Anim 37:132–138

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beauvais B, Sarfati C, Challier S, Derouin F (1994) In vitro model to asses effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 38(10):2440–2448

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Biderre C, Pagès M, Méténier G, Canning EU, Vivarès CP (1995) Evidence for the smallest nuclear genome (2.9 Mb) in the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Mol. Biochem Parasitol 74(2):229–231

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boot R, Hansen C, Nozari N, Thuis H (2000) Comparison of assays for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Lab Anim 34(3):281–289

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Canning EU, Lom J (1986) The Microsporidia of vertebrates. Academic, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalupský J, Vávra J, Bedrník P (1979) Encephalitozoonosis in laboratory animals—a serological survey. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 26:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalupsky J, Vavra J, Gaudin J (1990) Mise en evidence serologique de la presence d‘ encephalitozoonose et de toxoplasmose chez le lapin de Gareene (Oryctolagus cuniculus) en France. Bull Soc Franc Parasitol 8:91–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox JC, Gallichio HA (1978) Serological and histological studies on adult rabbits with recent, naturally acquired encephalitozoonosis. Res Vet Sci 24:260–261

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cox JC, Pye D (1975) Serodiagnosis of nosematosis by immunofluorescence using cell culture grown organisms. Lab Anim 9:297–304

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cox JC, Ross J (1980) A serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in the wild rabbit in England and Scotland. Res Vet Sci 28:396

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cox JC, Hamilton RC, Attwood HD (1979) An investigation of the route and progression of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in adult rabbits. J Protozool 26:260–265

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cox JC, Pye D, Edmonds JW, Shepherd R (1980) An investigation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus in Victoria, Australia. J Hyg (Lond) 84(2):295–300

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Csokai J, Gruber A, Künzel F, Tichy A, Joachim A (2009a) Encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): pathohistological findings in animals with latent infection versus clinical manifestation. Parasitol Res 104:629–635

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Csokai J, Joachim A, Gruber A, Tichy A, Pakozdy A, Künzel F (2009b) Diagnostic markers for encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Vet Parasitol 163(1–2):18–26

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deeb BJ, Carpenter JW (2004) Neurologic and musculoskeletal disease. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW (eds) Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd edn. Saunders, St. Louis, pp 203–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Deeb BJ, Di Giacomo RF (1994) Cerebral larva migrans caused by Baylascaris sp. in pet rabbits. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1744–1747

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De Groote M, Visvesvara G, Wilson M, Pieniazek N, Slemenda S, da Silva A, Leitch G, Bryan R, Reves R (1995) Polymerase chain reaction and culture confirmation of disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with AIDS: Successful therapy with albendazole. J Infect Dis 171:1375–1378

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deplazes P, Mathis A, Baumgartner R, Tanner I, Weber R (1996) Immunologic and molecular characteristics of Encephalitozoon-like microsporidia isolated from humans and rabbits indicate that Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a zoonotic parasite. Clin Infect Dis 22:557–559

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Didier PJ, Didier ES, Orenstein JM, Shadduck JA (1991) Fine structure of a new human microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem, in culture. J Protozool 38:502–507

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Didier E, Orenstein JM, Aldras A, Bertucci D, Rogers LB, Janney A (1995a) Comparison of three staining methods for detecting microsporidia in fluids. J Clin Microbiol 33:3138–3145

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Didier ES, Vossbrinck CR, Baker MD, Rogers LB, Bertucci DC, Shadduck JA (1995b) Identification and characterization of three Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains. Parasitology 111(Pt 4):411–421

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dipineto L, Rinaldi L, Santaniello A, Sensale M, Cuomo A, Calabria M, Menna LF, Fioretti A (2008) Serological survey for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Italy. Zoonoses Publ Health 55:173–175

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dubey JP, Brown CA, Carpenter JL, Moore JJ (1992) Fatal toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits in the USA. Vet Parasitol 44:305–309

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ebrecht D, Müller E (2004) Zoonosen des Kaninchens. Tieraerztl Prax K 32:363–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Eröksüz Y, Eröksüz H, Özer H, Cevik A, Ünver Ö (1999) A survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbit colonies in Elazig, Turkey: pathomorphologic and serologic (carbonimmunoassay test) studies. Isr J Vet Med 54:73–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Ewringmann A, Göbel T (1999) Untersuchungen zur Klinik und Therapie der Encephalitozoonose beim Heimtierkaninchen. Kleintierpraxis 44:357–372

    Google Scholar 

  • Feaga WP (1997) Wry neck in rabbits. JAVMA 210(4):480

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fechle LM, Sigler RL (2002) Phacoemulsification for the management of Encephalitozoonon cuniculi-induced phacoclastic uveitis in a rabbit. Vet Ophthalmol 5:211–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flatt RE, Jackson SJ (1970) Renal nosematosis in young rabbits. Path Vet 7:492–497

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Franssen FF, Lumeij JT, van Knapen F (1995) Susceptibility of Encephalitozoon cuniculi to several drugs in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39(6):1265–1268

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Franzen C (2004) Microsporidia: how can they invade other cells? Trends Parasitol 20(6):275–279

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Furuoka H, Sato H, Kubo M, Owaki S, Kobayashi Y, Matsui T, Kamiya H (2003) Neuropathological observation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) larva migrans in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 65(6):695–699

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giordano C, Weigt A, Vercelli A, Rondena M, Grilli G, Giudice C (2005) Immunohistochemical identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in phacoclastic uveitis in four rabbits. Vet Ophthalmol 8:271–275

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grahn B, Wolfer J, Keller Ch (1991) Diagnostic Ophtalmology. Can Vet J 32:372–373

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grest P, Albicker P, Hoelzle L, Wild P, Pospischil A (2002) Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Comp Pathol 126(4):308–311

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gruber A, Pakozdy A, Weissenböck H, Csokai J, Künzel F (2009) A retrospective study of neurological disease in 118 rabbits. J Comp Pathol 140(1):31–37

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Halánová M, Cisláková L, Valencákova A, Bálent P, Adam J, Trávnicek M (2003) Serological screening of occurrence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in humans and animals in Eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med 10(1):117–120

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Textbook of rabbit medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Harcourt-Brown FM (2004) Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 13:86–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harcourt-Brown FM, Holloway HKR (2003) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits. Vet Rec 152:427–431

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horváth M, Svicky E, Sevcikova Z (1998) Pathomorphological response to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in cyclophosphamide-treated rabbits. Acta Vet (Brno) 67:37–42

    Google Scholar 

  • Igarashi M, Oohashi E, Dautu G, Ueno A, Kariya T, Furuya K (2008) High seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 70(12):1301–1304

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jass A, Matiasek K, Hartmann K, Küchenhoff H, Fischer A (2006) Evaluierung von Liquoruntersuchung und PCR zur Diagnose der Enzephalitozoonose beim Kaninchen. Prakt Tierarzt 87:518–524

    Google Scholar 

  • Jass A, Matiasek K, Henke J, Küchenhoff H, Hartmann K, Fischer A (2008) Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinically suspected encephalitozoonosis. Vet Rec 162(19):618–622

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jordan CN, Zajac AM, Lindsay DS (2006) Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Compend Contin Educ Vet 28:108–116

    Google Scholar 

  • Karp BE (1999) Rabies in two privately owned domestic rabbits. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:1824–1827

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Katinka MD, Duprat S, Cornillot E, Méténier G, Thomarat F, Prensier G, Barbe V, Peyretaillade E, Brottier P, Wincker P, Delbac F, El Alaoui H, Peyret P, Saurin W, Gouy M, Weissenbach J, Vivarès CP (2001) Genome sequence and gene compaction of the eukaryote parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Nature 414(6862):450–453

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Katzwinkel-Wladarsch S, Lieb M, Heise W, Löscher T, Rinder H (1996) Direct amplification and species determination of microsporidian DNA from stool specimens. Trop Med Int Health 1:373–378

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Katzwinkel-Wladarsch S, Deplazes P, Weber R, Löscher T, Rinder H (1997) Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with light microscopy for detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16:7–10

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Keeble EJ, Shaw DJ (2006) Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 158:539–544

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khan IA, Moretto M (1999) Role of gamma interferon in cellular immune response against murine Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Infect Immun 67(4):1887–1893

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khan IA, Schwartzman JD, Kasper LH, Moretto M (1999) CD8+ CTLs are essential for protective immunity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. J Immunol 162(10):6086–6091

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khan IA, Moretto M, Weiss LM (2001) Immune response to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Microbes Infect 3(5):401–405

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kock NP, Petersen H, Fenner T, Sobottka I, Schmetz C, Deplazes P, Pieniazek NJ, Albrecht H, Schottelius J (1997) Species-specific identification of microsporidia in stool and intestinal biopsy specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16:369–376

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koudela B, Vítovec J, Kucerová Z, Ditrich O, Trávnícek J (1993) The severe combined immunodeficient mouse as a model for Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidiosis. Folia Parasitol. (Praha) 40(4):279–286

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kunstýř I, Naumann S (1985) Head tilt in rabbits caused by pasteurellosis and encephalitozoonosis. Lab Anim 19:208–213

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Künzel F, Gruber A, Tichy A, Edelhofer R, Nell B, Hassan J, Leschnik M, Thalhammer JG, Joachim A (2008) Clinical symptoms and diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Vet Parasitol 151:115–124

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leland MM, Hubbard GV, Dubey JP (1992) Clinical toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 42:318–319

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lev L (1982) Untersuchungen von experimentellen und spontanen Encephalitozoon cuniculi-Infektionen bei Kaninchen mit 3 serologischen Methoden. Dissertation, Veterinary University of Hannover

  • Levkut M, Lesnik F, Balent P, Levkutová M, Kolodzieyski L, Horváth M (1998) An unusal manifestation of encephalitozoonosis in chinchilla rabbits. Can Vet J 39(9):576–577

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lyngset A (1980) A survey of serum antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in breeding rabbits and their young. Lab Anim Sci 30:558–561

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mathis A (2000) Microsporidia: emerging advances in understanding the basic biology of these unique organisms. Int J Parasitol 30:795–804

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mathis A, Weber R, Deplazes P (2005) Zoonotic potential of the microsporidia. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:423–445

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Méteniér G, Vivarès CP (2001) Molecular characteristics and physiology of microsporidia. Microbes Inf 3:407–415

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Metzler A, Ehrensperger F, Wyler R (1978) Natural borna virus infection in rabbits. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 25(2):161–164

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer-Breckwoldt A (1996) Epidemiologische und klinische Untersuchungen zur Encephalitozoonose beim Zwergkaninchen. Dissertation, Veterinary University, Hannover

  • Müller C (1998) Untersuchungen zur Diagnostik, Biologie und Verbreitung von Microsporidien bei Kaninchen und anderen Tierarten. Dissertation, University of Zürich

  • Müller K, Fuchs W, Heblinski W, Teifke W, Brunnberg L, Gruber AD, Klopfleisch R (2009) Encephalitis in a rabbit caused by human Herpes virus-1. JAVMA 235(1):66–69

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Murray KA, Hobbs BA, Griffith JW (1985) Acute meningoencephalomyelitis in a rabbit infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lab Anim Sci 35(2):169–171

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nast R, Middleton DM, Wheler CL (1996) Generalized encephalitozoonosis in a Jersey wooly rabbit. Can Vet J 37:303–305

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Neuschl J, Čonkova E, Krokavec P, Čelarova E, Halanova M, Hipikova V, Balent P, Šutiak V (1999) The development of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits after infection by Encephalitozoon cuniculi and treatment with albendazole. Acta Vet (Beograd) 49(4):327–334

    Google Scholar 

  • Neuwirt E (1988) Ein Beitrag zur Diagnose der Encephalitozoonose (Nosematose) beim Kaninchen; Vergleich zwischen direkten und indirekten Nachweismethoden. Dissertation, University of Munich

  • Okewole EA (2008) Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in Nigeria. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75(1):33–38

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pakes SP, Gerrity LW (1994) Protozoal Diseases. In: Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE (eds) The biology of the laboratory rabbit, 2nd edn. Academic, London, pp 205–224

    Google Scholar 

  • Petri M (1969) Studies on Nosema cuniculi found in transplantable ascites tumors with a survey of microsporidiosis in mammals. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 204(Suppl):1–91

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rönnebäumer K, Gross U, Bohne W (2008) The nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Encephalitozoon cuniculi is formed by host cell lipids and contains pores which allow nutrient uptake. Eukaryot Cell 7(6):1001–1008

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Santaniello A, Dipineto L, Rinaldi L, Menna LF, Cringoli G, Fioretti A (2009) Serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in farm rabbits in Italy. Res Vet Sci 87(1):67–69

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Scharmann W, Reblin L, Griem W (1986) Untersuchungen über die Infektion von Kaninchen durch Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 99:20–24

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt EC, Shadduck JA (1983) Murine encephalitozoonosis model for studying the host-parasite relationship of a chronic infection. Infect Immun 40(3):936–942

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shadduck JA (1980) Effect of fumagillin on in vitro multiplication of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J Protozool 27(2):202–208

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shadduck JA, Pakes SP (1971) Encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) and toxoplasmosis. Am J Pathol 64(3):657–673

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shadduck JA, Watson WT, Pakes SP, Cali A (1979) Animal infectivity of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J Parasitol 65:123–129

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder SB, Fox JG, Soave OA (1973) Sub-clinical otitis media associated with Pasteurella multocida infections in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci 23(2):270–272

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stiles J, Didier E, Ritchie B, Greenacre C, Willis M, Martin C (1997) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in the lens of a rabbit with phacoclastic uveitis: confirmation and treatment. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 7:233–238

    Google Scholar 

  • Suter C, Müller-Doblies UU, Hatt JM, Deplazes P (2001) Prevention and treatment of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits with fenbendazole. Vet Rec 148:478–480

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas WB (2000) Vestibular dysfunction. Vet Clin N Am: Small Anim Pract 30:227–249

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas C, Finn M, Twigg L, Deplazes P, Thompson RC (1997) Microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) in wild rabbits in Australia. Aust Vet J 75(11):808–810

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Von Kücken U, Ludwig HJ, Lange S, Günther H, Dix B, Lange M, Müller D (1987) Eine generalisierte Erkrankung des Kaninchens durch Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Mh Vet Med 42:781–784

    Google Scholar 

  • Waller T (1977) The India ink immunoreaction: a method for the rapid diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. Lab Anim 11:93–97

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Waller T (1979) Sensitivity of Encephalitozoon cuniculi to various temperatures, disinfectants and drugs. Lab Anim 13:227–230

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Waller T, Morein B, Fabiansson E (1978) Humoral immune response to infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Lab Anim 12:145–148

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wasson K, Peper RL (2000) Mammalian microsporidiosis. Vet Pathol 37:113–128

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weber R, Mathis A, Deplazes P (1996) Intestinal and systemic infections due to microsporidia. Internist 37:912–918

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weber R, Schwartz DA, Deplazes P (1999) Laboratory Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis. In: Wittner M, Weiss LM (eds) The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., pp 315–362

    Google Scholar 

  • Weissenböck H, Hainfellner JA, Berger J, Kasper I, Budka H (1997) Naturally occurring herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 34(1):44–47

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wicher V, Baughn RE, Fuentealba C, Shadduck JA, Abbruscato F, Wicher K (1991) Enteric infection with an obligate intracellular parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in an experimental model. Infect Immun 59:2225–2231

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Williams DL (1999) Laboratory Animal Ophthalmology. In: Gelatt KN (ed) Veterinary Ophthalmology, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1209–1236

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JM (1979) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in wild European rabbits and a fox. Res Vet Sci 26:114

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfer J, Grahn B, Wilcock B, Percy D (1993) Phacoclastic uveitis in the rabbit. Prog Vet Comp Ophthalmol 3:92–97

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright JH, Craighead EM (1922) Infectious motor paralysis in young rabbits. J Exp Med 36:135–140

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xu Y, Weiss LM (2005) The microsporidian polar tube: a highly specialised invasion organelle. Int J Parasitol 35:941–953

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Frank Künzel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Künzel, F., Joachim, A. Encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. Parasitol Res 106, 299–309 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1679-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1679-3

Keywords

Navigation