Parasitology Research

, Volume 105, Issue 4, pp 1109–1117 | Cite as

Isolation and genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species from tap-water sources in Osaka, Japan

  • Akiko Edagawa
  • Akio KimuraEmail author
  • Takako Kawabuchi-Kurata
  • Yasuhiro Kusuhara
  • Panagiotis Karanis
Original Paper


Here, we carried out a survey to determine the prevalence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap-water sources from rivers and water treatment plants located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 374 raw water samples were collected from 113 sampling points. The samples were filtrated and transferred to non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a heat-killed suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated for 2 to 7 days at 30°C or 42°C. The plates were examined by microscopy to morphologically identify FLA families, and polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis were then performed to define the species of the detected Naegleria and Acanthamoeba isolates. A total of 257 of 374 samples (68.7%) were positive for FLA by microscopy, and among these there were 800 FLA isolates, including Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species. Sequence analysis identified five Acanthamoeba spp. isolates of the known pathogenic T4 genotype and 43 Naegleria australiensis isolates, a reported pathogen to mice and also of concern as a potential pathogen to humans. Our results suggest a wide distribution of FLA, including potential pathogenic species, in tap-water sources of western Japan.


Internal Transcribe Spacer Water Treatment Plant Osaka Prefecture Blast Homology Search Acanthamoeba Isolate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Mr. H. Doi and Ms. T. Hizuka for technical assistance. We are grateful to Dr. T. Endo of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for providing the DNA of N. lovaniensis. We are also grateful to Mr. B. Sheridan and Dr. G. Harris of DMC Corporation for their review of the manuscript during its preparation. This work was supported in part by grants to A. E from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiko Edagawa
    • 1
  • Akio Kimura
    • 2
    Email author
  • Takako Kawabuchi-Kurata
    • 3
  • Yasuhiro Kusuhara
    • 4
  • Panagiotis Karanis
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Environmental HealthOsaka Prefectural Institute of Public HealthOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Planning and CoordinationOsaka Prefectural Institute of Public HealthOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Division of VirologyOsaka Prefectural Institute of Public HealthOsakaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Medical Zoology, School of Health SciencesFujita Health UniversityToyoakeJapan
  5. 5.Medical and Molecular Parasitology, Centre of Anatomy, Institute II, Medical SchoolUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

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