Parasitology Research

, 105:1 | Cite as

Biology of Alaria spp. and human exposition risk to Alaria mesocercariae—a review

Review

Abstract

Recent incidental background findings of Alaria alata mesocercariae [“Distomum muscularis suis,” Duncker, 1896] in meat of wild boars during official Trichinella inspection initiated a re-assessment of the potential human health risk as posed by this parasite. The present review of the literature on Alaria biology shows that the human exposition risk should no longer be accepted to be negligible, as it demonstrates a general lack of knowledge in relevant areas of Alaria biology confounding any risk analysis. Sound risk assessment needs future studies which should concentrate on the most pressing questions of (1) the optimization and/or development of methods for reliable Alaria mesocercariae detection, (2) the distribution of the mesocercariae within their paratenic hosts, i.e., identification of potential predilection sites, particularly in wild boars, and (3) their prevalence in sylvatic populations of animals with respect to their introduction into the human food chain. Further, the degree and possibly also the species specificity of Alaria mesocercariae tenacity within the paratenic hosts and respective meat as pertaining to food technological treatments need to be elucidated. While these questions remain unanswered, it is an incontrovertible fact that Alaria mesocercariae have a potentially high human pathogenicity by both occupational and alimentary exposition.

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Cited legal texts

  1. 77/96/EEC Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to public health—Detection of Trichinella spiralis in pork with a pooled sample digestion method using a magnetic stirrer and two separatory funnels—22 June 1998. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N L026 of 31/01/1977:0067Google Scholar
  2. 64/433/EEC Council Directive 64/433/EEC of 26 June 1964 on health problems affecting intra-Community trade in fresh meat. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N B121 of 29/07/1964:2012Google Scholar
  3. 92/120/EEC Council Directive 92/120/EEC of 17 December 1992 on the conditions for granting temporary and limited derogations from specific Community health rules on the production and marketing of certain products of animal origin. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N L062 of 15/03/1993:0086Google Scholar
  4. 2075/2005/EC Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005 of 5 December 2005 laying down specific rules on official controls for Trichinella in meat.Google Scholar
  5. 854/2004/EC Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 laying down rules for the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumptionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Stadt Brandenburg an der Havel Gesundheits-, Veterinär- und Lebensmittelüberwachungsamtder HavelGermany
  3. 3.Landkreis Uckermark, Gesundheits- und VeterinäramtPrenzlauGermany

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