Skip to main content
Log in

Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts

  • Short Communication
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing, and medical facilities. It has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products containing 4.5% and 40% PAA to I. multifiliis theronts from two geographically separate isolates. Theronts were exposed to concentrations of PAA in 96-well plates containing groundwater at 23°C. Acute toxicity was observed over a 4-h period. No significant difference in the median lethal concentration (LC50) estimates was evident between the two isolates at 4 h with the 4.5% PAA product (0.146 versus 0.108 mg/l PAA), while there was a statistical difference between the 4 h LC50 with the 40% PAA product (0.274 versus 0.158 mg/l PAA). These results suggest that PAA is toxic to I. multifiliis theronts at low concentrations and that one of the isolates was more resistant to this compound.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • APHA (American Public Health Association), American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. APHA, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Beckert H, Allison R (1964) Some host responses of white catfish to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Fouquet. Proc Southeast Assoc Game Fish Comm 18:438–441

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson HW, Clark TG, Leff AA (1993) Serotypic variation among isolates of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis based on immobilization. J Eukaryot Microbiol 40:816–820

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lom J, Dyková I (1992) Ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901). In: Lom J, Dyková I (eds) Protozoan parasites of fishes. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science series, volume 26. Elsevier Science, The Netherlands, pp 237–288

  • Matthews RA (2005) Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet and ichthyophthiriosis in freshwater teleosts. Adv Parasitol 59:159–241

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meinelt T, Phan T-M, Stüber A, Bräunig I (2004) Wofasteril® und Wofasteril E250 zur Bekämpfung von Fischschimmel—Erste Erfahrungen. Fischer & Teichwirt 11:888–890

    Google Scholar 

  • Meinelt T, Staaks G, Kunze K, Stüber A, Richert I (2005) Behandlung einer unspezifischen Mykose mit Peressigsäure (Wofasteril® E400) bei der Aufzucht der kleinen Maräne (Coregonus albula). Fischer & Teichwirt 11:411

    Google Scholar 

  • Meinelt T, Stüber A, Bräunig I (2006) Weitere Ergebnisse bei der Anwendung von Peressigsäure (Wofasteril E400 und Wofasteril E250) zur Bekämpfung von Fischschimmel (Saprolegnia parasitica)—Erste Erfahrungen bei der Erbrütung von Regenbogenforellen. Fischer & Teichwirt 1:12–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Meinelt T, Richert I, Stüber A, Bräunig I (2007a) Einsatz von Peressigsäure zur Behandlung juveniler Zander (Sander lucioperca) bei Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-Befall. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 114:244–251 (In German with English summary)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meinelt T, Staaks J, Staaks G, Stüber A, Bräunig I (2007b) Antiparasitäre Effekte von Peressigsäure (PES) gegen infektiöse Stadien (Theronten) der Weißpünktchenkrankheit, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, in vitro. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 114:383–386 (In German with English summary)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nigrelli RF, Pokorny KS, Ruggieri GD (1976) Notes on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliate parasitic on fresh-water fishes, with some remarks on possible physiological races and species. Trans Am Microsc Soc 95:607–613

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson JL, Russell RM, Preisler HK, Savin NE (2007) Bioassays with Arthropods, 2nd edn. CRC, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Schäperclaus W (1991) Diseases caused by ciliates. In: Schäperclaus W, Kulow H, Schreckenbach K (eds) Fish diseases. Published for the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 702–725

    Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasa Rao PS, Yamada Y, Leung KY (2003) A major catalase (KatB) that is required for resistance to H2O2 and phagocyte-mediated killing in Edwardsiella tarda. Microbiology 149:2635–2644

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Straus DL (1993) Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in channel catfish fingerlings by copper sulfate treatment. J Aquat Anim Health 5:152–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Straus DL, Griffin BR (2001) Prevention of an initial infestation of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish and blue tilapia by potassium permanganate treatment. North Am J Aquac 63:11–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Straus DL, Hossain MM, Clark TG (2009) Strain Differences in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis to Copper Toxicity. Dis Aquat Org 83:31–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swennes AG, Findly RC, Dickerson HW (2007) Cross-immunity and antibody responses to different immobilisation serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol 22:589–597

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tucker CS, Robinson EH (1990) Channel catfish farming handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • USEPA (2007).

  • Wise DJ, Camus AC, Schwedler TE, Terhune JS (2004) Infectious diseases. In: Tucker CS, Hargreaves JA (eds) Biology and culture of channel catfish. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 444–502

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

Download references


Special thanks to Cindy Ledbetter for maintaining the Ich cultures and all other aspects of the experiments. Drs. Anita Kelly (Lonoke, AR) and Shari Hanson (Ruskin, FL) supplied us with our Ich isolates. Drs. Theodore Clark, Klaus Knopf, Andrew Radomski, and Jacqueline Robertson provided critical reviews of the manuscript. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Studies were conducted in accordance with institutional, national, and international guidelines concerning the use of animals in research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to David L. Straus.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Straus, D.L., Meinelt, T. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts. Parasitol Res 104, 1237–1241 (2009).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: