Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

  • Mosquitoes
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The number of mosquito-borne viruses (‘moboviruses’) occurring in Europe since the twentieth century now stands at ten; they belong to three families—Togaviridae (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Bunyaviridae (Batai, Ťahyňa, Snowshoe hare, Inkoo, Lednice). Several of them play a definite role in human or animal pathology (Sindbis, Chikungunya, Dengue, West Nile, Ťahyňa). Mobovirus outbreaks are strictly determined by the presence and/or import of particular competent vectors of the disease. Ecological variables affect moboviruses considerably; the main factors are population density of mosquito vectors and their vertebrate hosts, intense summer precipitations or floods, summer temperatures and drought, and presence of appropriate habitats, e.g., wetlands, small water pools, or intravillan sewage systems. A surveillance for moboviruses and the diseases they cause in Europe is recommendable, because the cases may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed not only in free-living vertebrates but also in domestic animals and even in humans.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Anderson JF, Main AJ (2006) Importance of vertical and horizontal transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens in the Northeastern United States. J Infect Dis 194:1577–1579

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arcan P, Topciu V, Rošiu N, Csaky N (1974) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus from Culex pipiens mosquitoes in Romania. Acta Virol 18:175

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H (1968) Weitere Untersuchungen über die durch Stechmücken übertragenen Arboviren Österreichs. Zentralbl Bakteriol 208:69–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H (1996) Stechmücken als Virusüberträger in Mitteleuropa. Nova Acta Leopold 71(292):37–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C (1966) Isolierung des Tahyna-Virus aus Stechmücken in Österreich. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 18:8–15

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C (1967) Untersuchungen über die Ökologie des Tahyna-Virus. Zentralbl Bakteriol 203:1–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C (1968) Isolierung des Calovo-(=Batai- =Chitoor-) virus aus Stechmücken in Österreich. Wien Med Wochenschr 118:497–498

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C (1970a) Überwinterung dec Calovo-Virus in experimentell infizierten Weibchen von Anopheles maculipennis messeae Fall. Zentralbl Bakteriol 213:429–433

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C (1970b) Felduntersuchungen über die Bedeutung des Igels (Erinaceus europaeus roumanicus Barrett-Hamilton) im Zyklus des Tahyna-virus. Zentralbl Bakteriol A 213:304–310

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspöck H, Kunz C, Pretzmann G (1970) Phänologie und Abundanz der Stechmücken des östlichen Neusiedlersee-Gebietes (Ost-Österreich) in ihrer Beziehung zum Auftreten der durch Stechmücken übertragenen Arboviren. Zentralbl Bakteriol 214:160–173

    Google Scholar 

  • Bakonyi T, Hubálek Z, Rudolf I, Nowotny N (2005) Novel flavivirus or new lineage of West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 11:225–231

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bakonyi T, Ivanics E, Erdelyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Weissenböck H, Nowotny N (2006) Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 12:618–623

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bakonyi T, Erdélyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Csörgö T, Lussy H, Chvala S, Bukovsky C, Meister T, Weissenböck H, Nowotny N (2007) Emergence of Usutu virus in Hungary. J Clin Microbiol 45:3870–3874

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V (1974) Recent state of knowledge of Ťahyňa virus infections. Folia Parasitol 21:1–10

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V (1977) Acute infections caused by Ťahyňa virus—evaluation for 1959–1976. Čas Lék Čes 116:995–998 (in Czech)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V (1979) A proposal for the evaluation of vertebrates as to their role in the circulation of arboviruses. Folia Parasitol 26:89–91

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Čupková E (1962) The Čalovo virus—the second virus isolated from mosquitoes in Czechoslovakia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 6:186–192

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Danielová V (1959) The Ťahyňa virus—a virus isolated from mosquitoes in Czechoslovakia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 3:264–276

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Sluka F (1963) Acute human infections caused by Ťahyňa virus. Čas Lék Čes 52:394–402 (in Slovak)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Sluka F, Čupková E (1969) Serological study on the medical importance of Čalovo virus. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group. Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, pp 333–336

    Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Medek M, Kania V, Hubálek Z (1975a) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus from the blood of sick children. Acta Virol 19:447

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Ryba J, Hubálek Z (1975b) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus from field-collected Culiseta annulata (Schrk.) larvae. Acta Virol 19:446

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bárdoš V, Medek M, Kania V, Hubálek Z, Juřicová Z (1980) Das klinische Bild der Ťahyňa-Virus (California Gruppe)-Infektionen bei Kindern. Pädiat Grenzgeb 19:11–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Beletskaya GV, Alekseev AN (1988) Experimental demonstration of the Batai virus maintenance in hibernating female Anopheles maculipennis mosquitoes. Med Parazitol 66(4):23–27 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Benedict MQ, Levine RS, Hawley WA, Lounibos LP (2007) Spread of the tiger: gobal risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Vector-Borne Zoon Dis 7:76–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berezin VV, Chumakov MP, Semenov BF, Reshetnikov IA, Hannoun C, Corniu B, Mouchet J (1971) Investigation on the ecology of mosquito-borne viruses using sentinel animals in the Volga delta. Vopr Virusol 16:739–745 (in Russian)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berezin VV, Semenov BF, Reshetnikov IA, Bashkirtsev VN (1972) Importance of birds in natural cycle of mosquito-borne viruses in the Volga delta. In: Cherepanov AI (ed) Transcontinental connections of migratory birds and their role in the distribution of arboviruses. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 310–313 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bishop DHL, Beaty BJ, Shope RE (1980) Recombination and gene coding assignments of bunyaviruses and arenaviruses. Ann NY Acad Sci 354:84–106

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Black SS, Harrison LR, Pursell AR, Cole JR, Appel MJ, Shope RE, Tirrell SJ (1994) Necrotizing panencephalitis in puppies infected with La Crosse virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 6:250–254

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Briese T, Bird B, Kapoor V, Nichol ST, Lipkin WI (2006) Batai and Ngari viruses: M segment reassortment and association with severe febrile disease outbreaks in East Africa. J Virol 80:5627–2630

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brudnjak Z, Danielová V, Ryba J, Vesenjak-Hirjan J (1970) Isolation of Čalovo virus from Anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes in Yugoslavia. Folia Parasitol 17:323–324

    Google Scholar 

  • Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1969) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group in Finland. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group. SAS, Bratislava, pp 131–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1974) Bunyamwera arbovirus supergroup in Finland. A study on Inkoo and Batai viruses. Commentat Biol 76:1–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Saikku P, Korhonen P, Ulmanen I, Reunala T, Karvonen J (1973) Arboviruses in Finland .IV. Isolation and characterization of Inkoo virus, a Finnish representative of the California group. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:404–413

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Buckley A, Dawson A, Gould EA (2006) Detection of seroconversion to West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus in UK sentonel chickens. Virol J 3:71–76

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burgdorfer W, Newhouse VF, Thomas LA (1961) Isolation of California encephalitis virus from the blood of a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) in western Montana. Am J Hyg 73:344–349

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Butenko AM, Chumakov MP, Bashkirtsev VN, Tkachenko EA, Rubin SG, Stolbov DN (1968) New investigations of West Nile virus infections in the U.S.S.R.-Astrakhan region. Mater XV Nauch Sess Inst Poliom Virus Encefal (Moskva) 3:175–176 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Butenko AM, Vladimirtseva EA, Lvov SD, Calisher CH, Karabatsos N (1991) California serogroup viruses from mosquitoes collected in the USSR. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45:366–370

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calisher CH (1983) Taxonomy, classification, and geographic distribution of California serogroup bunyaviruses. In: Calisher CH, Thompson WH (eds) California serogroup viruses. Liss, New York, pp 1–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Calisher CH (1994) Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 7:89–116

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calisher CH, Lazuick JS, Wolff KL, Muth DJ (1984) Antigenic relationships among Turlock serogroup bunyaviruses as determined by neutralization tests. Acta Virol 28:148–151

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Lazuick JS, Monath TP, Wolff KL (1988) Reevaluation of the Western equine encephalitis antigenic complex of alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) as determined by neutralization tests. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38:447–452

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Dalrymple JM, Shope RE, Porterfield JS, Westaway EG, Brandt WE (1989) Antigenic relationships between flaviviruses as determined by cross-neutralization tests with polyclonal sera. J Gen Virol 70:37–43

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Casals J (1962) Immunological relationship between Ťahyňa and California encephalitis viruses. Acta Virol 6:140–143

    Google Scholar 

  • Chandler LJ, Hogge G, Endres M, Jacoby DR, Nathanson N, Beaty BJ (1991) Reassortment of La Crosse and Tahyna bunyaviruses in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Virus Res 20:181–191

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chippaux A, Rageau J, Mouchet J (1970) Hibernation de l’arbovirus Ťahyňa chez Culex modestus Fic. en France. C R Acad Sci D 270:1648–1650

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chumakov MP, Belyaeva AP, Butenko AM, Martyanova LI (1968) Isolation of West Nile virus from Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panz. ticks. Tr Inst Polio Virusn Encefalitov (Moskva) 13:365 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chung SI, Livingston CW, Edwards JF, Crandell RW, Shope RE, Shelton MJ, Collisson EW (1990) Evidence that Cache Valley virus induces congenital malformations in sheep. Vet Microbiol 21:297–307

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chvala S, Bakonyi T, Bukovsky C, Meister T, Brugger K, Rubel F, Nowotny N, Weissenböck H (2007) Monitoring of Usutu virus activity and spread by using dead birds surveillance in Austria, 2003–2005. Vet Microbiol 122:237–245

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V (1984) To the problem of the vector of Lednice virus. Folia Parasitol 31:379–382

    Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V (1992) Relationships of mosquitoes to Ťahyňa virus as determinant factors of its circulation in nature. Stud ČSAV (Praha) 3:1–102

    Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V, Málková D (1976) Study of viremia and antibody formation in ducklings and goslings after experimental infection with Lednice (Yaba 1) virus. Folia Parasitol 23:367–372

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V, Minář J (1969) Experimental overwintering of the virus Ťahyňa in mosquitoes Culiseta annulata (Schrk.) (Diptera, Culicidae). Folia Parasitol 16:285–287

    Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V, Ryba J (1979) Laboratory demonstration of transovarial transmission of Ťahyňa virus in Aedes vexans and the role of this mechanism in overwintering of this arbovirus. Folia Parasitol 26:361–368

    Google Scholar 

  • Danielová V, Hájková Z, Kolman JM, Minář J, Smetana A (1966) Results of virological examination of mosquitoes in southern Moravia, 1962–64. Česk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 15:178–184 (in Czech)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de la Concha-Bermejillo A (2003) Cache Valley virus is a cause of fetal malformation and pregnancy loss in sheep. Small Rumin Res 49:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demikhov VG, Chaitsev VG, Butenko AM, Nedyalkova MS, Morozova TN (1991) California serogroup virus infections in the Ryazan region of the USSR. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45:371–376

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dohm DJ, Logan TM, Barth JF, Turell MJ (1995) Laboratory transmission of Sindbis virus by Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 32:818–821

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Draganescu N, Málková D, Girjabu E, Cajal N (1981) Serological investigations into the presence of antibodies to Yaba 1-Lednice 110 virus in Romania. Rev Roum Méd Sér Virol 32:19–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunn EF, Pritlove DC, Elliott RM (1994) The sRNA genome segments of Batai, Cache Valley, Guaroa, Kairi, Lumbo, Main Drain and Northway bunyaviruses: sequence determination and analysis. J Gen Virol 75:597–608

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards JF (1994) Cache Valley virus. Vet Clin North Am 10:515–524

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eritja R, Escosa R, Lucientes J, Marquès E, Molina R, Roiz D, Ruiz S (2005) Worldwide invasion of vector mosquitoes: present European distribution and challenges for Spain. Biol Invasions 7:87–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ernek E, Kožuch O, Grešíková M, Nosek J, Sekeyová M (1973) Isolation of Sindbis virus from the reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) in Slovakia. Acta Virol 17:359–361

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ernek E, Kožuch O, Nosek J, Labuda M (1973/74) Evidence for circulation of Sindbis virus and other arboviruses by using sentinel animals in Western Slovakia. Intervirology 2:186–192

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ernek E, Kožuch O, Nosek J, Teplan J, Folk Č (1977) Arboviruses in birds captured in Slovakia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 21:353–359

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Espmark A, Niklasson B (1984) Ockelbo disease in Sweden: epidemiological, clinical and virological data from the 1982 outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:1203–1211

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fedorova TN, Stavskiy AV (1972) Latent infection of wild ducks with Omsk haemorrhagic fever and West Nile viruses. In: Chumakov MP (ed) Aktualnye prolemy virusologii i profilaktiki virusnykh zabolevaniy. IPVE AMN SSSR, Moskva, p 226 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Filipe AR (1972) Isolation in Portugal of West Nile virus from Anopheles maculipennis mosquitoes. Acta Virol 16:361

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Filipe AR, Andrade de HR (1990) Arboviruses in the Iberian Peninsula. Acta Virol 34:582–591

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fontenille D, Failloux AB, Romi R (2007) Should we expect chikungunya and dengue in southern Europe? In: Takken W, Knols BGJ (ed) Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe. Wageningen Academic, Wageningen, pp 169–184

    Google Scholar 

  • Francy DB, Jaenson TGT, Lundström JO, Schildt EB, Espmark Ő, Henriksson B, Niklasson B (1989) Ecologic studies of mosquitoes and birds as hosts of Ockelbo virus in Sweden and isolation of Inkoo and Batai viruses from mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:355–363

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gaidamovich SYA, Obukhova VR, Vinograd AI, Klisenko GA, Melnikova EE (1973) Olyka-an arbovirus of the Bunyamwera group in the U.S.S.R. Acta Virol 17:444

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Geevarghese G, Prasanna NY, Hanumaiah PGJ, Bhat HR (1994) Isolation of Batai virus from sentinel domestic pig from Kolar district in Karnataka State, India. Acta Virol 38:239–240

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST (2004) Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa. J Virol 78:8922–8926

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gligic A, Adamovic ZR (1976) Isolation of Tahyna virus from Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Serbia. Mikrobiologija 12:119–129

    Google Scholar 

  • Godsey MS, Amoo F, Yuill TM, Defoliart GR (1988) California serogroup virus infections in Wisconsin domestic animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39:409–416

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gratz N (2004) Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol 18:215–227

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gratz N (2006) Vector- and rodent-borne diseases in Europe and North America: their distribution and public health. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Grešíková M, Sekeyová M, Tempera G, Guglielmino S, Castro A (1978) Identification of a Sindbis virus strain isolated from Hyaloma marginatum ticks in Italy. Acta Virol 22:231–232

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gubler DJ (1996) Arboviruses as imported disease agents: the need for increased awareness. Arch Virol Suppl 11:21–32

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Halstead SB, Papaevangelou G (1980) Transmission of dengue-1 and 2 viruses in Greece in 1928. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29:635–637

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hannoun C (1971) Progrés récents dans l’étude des arbovirus. Bull Inst Pasteur 69:241–278

    Google Scholar 

  • Hannoun C, Panthier R, Mouchet J, Eouzan JP (1964) Isolement en France du virus West Nile à partir de malades et du vecteur Culex modestus Ficalbi. C R Acad Sci D 259:4170–4172

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hannoun C, Panthier R, Corniou B (1966) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus in the South of France. Acta Virol 10:362–364

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hannoun C, Panthier R, Corniou B (1969) Epidemiology of West Nile infections in the South of France. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group. SAS, Bratislava, pp 379–387

    Google Scholar 

  • Heath SE, Artsob H, Bell RJ, Harland RJ (1989) Equine encephalitis caused by snowshoe hare (California serogroup) virus. Can Vet J 30:669–671

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Henderson BE, Coleman PH (1971) The growing importance of California arboviruses in the etiology of human disease. Prog Med Virol 13:404–461

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Halouzka J (1996) Arthropod-borne viruses of vertebrates in Europe. Acta Sci Nat Brno 30(4–5):1–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Hubalek Z, Halouzka J (1999) West Nile fever: a reemerging mosquito-borne virus disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 5:643–650

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Bárdoš V, Medek M, Kania V, Kychler L, Jelínek E (1979) Ťahyňa virus—neutralizing antibodies in patients in southern Moravia. Česk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 28:87–96 (in Czech)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juřicová Z, Šebesta O (1998) First isolation of mosquito-borne West-Nile virus in the Czech Republic. Acta Virol 42:119–120

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juřicová Z (1999) West Nile fever in Czechland. Emerg Infect Dis 5:594–595

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Savage HM, Halouzka J, Juřicová Z, Sanogo YO, Lusk S (2000) West Nile virus investigations in South Moravia, Czechland. Viral Immunol 13:427–433

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hubálek Z, Lukáčová L, Halouzka J, Širůček P, Januška J, Přecechtělová J, Procházka P (2006) Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic. Eur J Epidemiol 21:323–324

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hunt AR, Calisher CH (1979) Relationships of Bunyamwera group viruses by neutralization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:740–749

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Janbon M, Bertrand A, Hannoun C, Mandin J, Janbon F, Jourdain J (1974) Méningo-encéphalite à virus Tahyna. J Méd Montp 9:7–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Karabatsos N (ed) (1985) International catalogue of arboviruses, including certain other viruses of vertebrates, 3rd edn (1985). Am. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg, San Antonio. The 1986–1995 Supplements to the International catalogue. CDC Div Vector-Borne Infect Dis, Ft Collins

  • Knudsen AB, Romi R, Majori G (1996) Occurrence and spread in Italy of Aedes albopictus, with implications for its introduction into other parts of Europe. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:177–183

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi M, Nihei N, Kurihara T (2002) Analysis of northern distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Japan by GIS. J Med Entomol 39:4–11

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kokernot RH, McIntosh BM, Worth CB, De Morais T, Weinbren MP (1962) Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes collected at Lumbo, Mozambique. I. Lumbo virus, a new virus isolated from Aedes (Skusea) pembaensis Theobald. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11:678–682

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kolman JM (1974) Serological examination of a sample of human population and some animal species for the presence of antibodies to Yaba 1 virus. Folia Parasitol 21:160

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kolman JM, Málková D, Nemec A, Smetana A, Hájková Z, Minář J (1964) The isolation of the Ťahyňa virus from the mosquito Aedes vexans in southern Moravia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 8:380–386

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolman JM, Kopecký K, Rác O (1979) Serologic examination of human population in South Moravia (Czechoslovakia) on the presence of antibodies to arboviruses of the Alfavirus, Flavivirus, Turlock groups and Bunyamwera supergroup. Folia Parasitol 26:55–60

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kolobukhina LV, Lvov DK, Butenko AM, Kuznetsov AA, Galkina IV, Nedyalkova MS, Vladimirova VV, Rudometov JP (1989a) Importance of the California antigenic complex viruses in pathology. Klin Med 9:61–64 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolobukhina LV, Lvov DK, Butenko AM, Kuznetsov AA, Galkina IV, Skvortsova TM, Nedyalkova MS (1989b) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of diseases caused by viruses of the California complex in the Moscow inhabitants. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 10:68–73 (in Russian)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kolobukhina LV, Lvov DK, Butenko AM, Nedyalkova MS, Kuznetsov AA, Galkina IV (1990) Signs and symptoms of infections caused by California serogroup viruses in humans in the U.S.S.R. Arch Virol Suppl 1:243–247

    Google Scholar 

  • Kostyukov MA, Gordeeva ZE, Bulychev VP, Nemova NV, Daniyarov OA, Tukhtaev TM (1985) The frog Rana ridibunda, a host of haematophagous mosquitoes in Tadjikistan, as a reservoir of West Nile virus. Med Parazitol 63(3):49–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Kožuch O, Labuda M, Nosek J (1978) Isolation of Sindbis virus from the frog Rana ridibunda. Acta Virol 22:78

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurkela S, Manni T, Myllynen J, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O (2005) Clinical and laboratory manifestations of Sindbis virus infection: prospective study, Finland, 2002–2003. J Infect Dis 191:1820–1829

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurkela S, Helve T, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O (2007) Arthritis and arthralgia three years after Sindbis virus infection: clinical follow-up of a cohort of 49 patients. Scand J Infect Dis 6:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurkela S, Rätti O, Huhtamo E, Uzcátegui NY, Nuorti JP, Laakkonen J, Manni T, Helle P, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O (2008) Sindbis virus infection in resident birds, migratory birds, and humans, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis 14:41–47

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Labuda M, Kožuch O (1982) Ťahyňa virus in the districts of Bratislava. Acta Virol 26:407

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Labuda M, Kožuch O, Grešíková M (1974) Isolation of West Nile virus from Aedes cantans mosquitoes in west Slovakia. Acta Virol 18:429–433

    Google Scholar 

  • Laine M, Luukkainen R, Toivanen A (2004) Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. J Intern Med 256:547–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO (1999) Mosquito-borne viruses in western Europe: a review. J Vector Ecol 24:1–39

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Niklasson B, Francy DB (1990a) Swedish Culex torrentium and Cx. pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) as experimental vectors of Ockelbo virus. J Med Entomol 27:561–563

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Turell MJ, Niklasson B (1990b) Effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of Culex pipiens and Cx. torrentium for Ockelbo virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43:534–542

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Vene S, Espmark Å, Engvall M, Niklasson B (1991) Geographical and temporal distribution of Ockelbo disease in Sweden. Epidemiol Infect 106:567–574

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Turell MJ, Niklasson B (1993a) Viremia in 3 orders of birds (Anseriformes, Galliformes and Passeriformes) inoculated with Ockelbo virus. J Wildl Dis 29:189–195

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Vene S, Saluzzo JF, Niklasson B (1993b) Antigenic comparison of Ockelbo virus isolates from Sweden and Russia with Sindbis virus isolates from Europe, Africa, and Australia: further evidence for variation among alphaviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49:531–537

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundström JO, Lindström KM, Olsen B, Dufva R, Krakower DS (2001) Prevalence of Sindbis virus neutralizing antibodies among Swedish passerines indicates that thrushes are the main amplifying hosts. J Med Entomol 38:289–297

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Ilyichev VD (1979) Bird migration and transport of pathogenic agents. Nauka, Moskva (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Gromashevsky VL, Sidorova GA, Tsyrkin YM, Chervonsky VI, Aristova VA (1972) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus from Anopheles hyrcanus mosquitoes in Kyzyl-Agach Preserve, SE.-Azerbaijan. Vopr Virusol 17:18–21 (in Russian)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Kostyukov MA, Pak TP, Gordeeva ZE, Bunietbekov AA, Gulyamov YG (1977) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus (California group, Bunyaviridae) from the blood of febrile patients in the Tadjik SSR. Vop Virusol 22:682-685 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Skvortsova TM, Kondrashina NG, Vershinsky BV, Lesnikov AL, Derevyansky VS, Berezina LK, Gromashevsky VL, Adrianova DP, Yakovlev VI (1982) Etiology of Karelian fever, a new arbovirus infection. Vopr Virusol 6:690–692 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Skvortsova TM, Berezina LK, Gromashevsky VL, Yakovlev BI, Gushchin BV, Aristova VA, Sidorova GA, Gushchina EA, Klimenko SM, Lvov SD, Khutoretskaya NV, Myasnikova IA, Khiznyakova TM (1984) Isolation of Karelian fever agent from Aedes communis mosquitoes. Lancet 2:399–400

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Skvortsova TM, Gromashevsky VL, Berezina LK, Yakovlev VI, Gushchin BV, Aristova VA, Sidorova GA, Gushchina EA, Klimenko SM, Lvov SD, Khutoretskaya NV, Myasnikova IA, Khizhnyakova TM (1985) Isolation of the agent of Karelian fever from mosquitoes. Vopr Virusol 30:311–313 (in Russian)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lvov SD, Gromashevsky VL, Bogoyavlensky GV, Bayluk FN, Skvortsova TM, Kondrashina NG, Kandaurov EK (1987) Isolation of Zaliv Terpeniya, Uukuniemi and Ťahyňa-like viruses from mosquitoes collected in tundra, forest-tundra and northern taiga of the Kola and Taimyr peninsulae and the middle taiga of Karelia. Med Parazitol 65(6):40–43 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Vladimirtseva EA, Butenko AM, Karabatsos N, Trent DW, Calisher CH (1988) Identity of Karelian fever and Ockelbo viruses determined by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests and oligonucleotide mapping. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39:607–610

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lvov SD, Gromashevsky VL, Skvortsova TM, Sokolova NG, Andronova ON, Semenov VB, Makhlin PI, Kondrashina NG, Bystrova EA, Gushchina EA, Morozova TN, Kuznetsov AA, Galkina IV, Yamnikova SS, Aristova VA, Avershin AD, Berezin MV (1989a) Circulation of California serogroup viruses in north-western Russian plateau. Med Parazitol 6:74–77 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lvov DK, Klimenko SM, Gaidamovich SYA (eds) (1989b) Arboviruses and arbovirus infections. Medicina, Moskva, (in Russian)

  • Lvov DK, Kolobukhina LV, Gromashevsky VL, Skvortsova TM, Morozova TN, Galkina IV, Nedyalkova MS (1996) Isolation of California antigenic group viruses from the patients with acute neuroinfection syndrome. Arbovirus Inf Exch, June:16–18

  • Lynch JA, Binnington BD, Artsob H (1985) California serogroup virus infection in a horse with encephalitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:389

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V (1977) Experimental infection of pheasants with Lednice (Yaba 1) virus. Folia Parasitol 24:382–384

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V (1978) Experimental infection of chickens with Lednice (Yaba 1) virus. Folia Parasitol 25:255–256

    Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V, Kolman J, Minář J, Smetana A (1965) Natural focus of Ťahyňa virus in South Moravia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 9:434–440

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V, Minář J, Rosický B, Casals J (1972) Isolation of Yaba 1 arbovirus in Czechoslovakia. Acta Virol 16:93

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V, Lím D (1979) Experimental infection of black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus L.) and coots (Fulica atra L.) with Lednice (M’Poko) virus. Folia Parasitol 26:85–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Holubová J, Marhoul Z, Černý V, Hájková Z, Rödl P (1984) Investigation of arboviruses in the Most area (1981–1982). Isolation of Ťahyňa virus. Česk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 33:88–96 (in Czech)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Málková D, Danielová V, Holubová J, Marhoul Z (1986) Less known arboviruses of central Europe. Rozpr ČSAV (Praha) Rada Mat Přír Věd 96(5):1–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Medlock JM, Avenell D, Barrass I, Leach S (2006) Analysis of the potential for survival and seasonal activity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United Kingdom. J Vector Ecol 31:292–304

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Medlock JM, Snow KR, Leach S (2007) Possible ecology and epidemiology of medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses in Great Britain. Epidemiol Infect 135:466–482

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Melnick JL, Paul JR, Riordan JF, Barnett VHH, Goldblum N, Zabin E (1951) Isolation from human sera in Egypt of a virus apparently identical to West Nile virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 77:661–665

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell CJ (1995) Geographic spread of Aedes albopictus and potential for involvement in arbovirus cycles in the Mediterranean basin. J Vector Ecol 20:44–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Mittermayer T, Bilčíková M, Jašš J, Tarabčák M (1964) Clinical manifestations of Ťahyňa virus infections in outpatients in Eastern Slovakia. Bratisl Lek Listy 44:636–639 (in Slovak)

    Google Scholar 

  • Murgue B, Murri S, Triki H, Deubel V, Zeller HG (2001) West Nile in the Mediterranean basin: 1950–2000. Ann NY Acad Sci 951:117–126

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Murgue B, Zeller H, Deubel V (2002) The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe and Asia. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:195–221

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nashed NW, Olson JG, El-Tigani A (1993) Isolation of Batai virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus) from the blood of suspected malaria patients in Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48:676–681

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niklasson B, Vene S (1996) Vector-borne viral diseases in Sweden—a short review. Arch Virol 11:49–55

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niklasson B, Espmark A, Leduc J, Gargan TP, Ennis WA, Tesh RB, Main AJ (1984) Association of a Sindbis-like virus with Ockelbo disease in Sweden. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:1212–1217

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niklasson B, Espmark A, Lundström J (1988) Occurrence of arthralgia and specific IgM antibodies three to four years after Ockelbo disease. J Infect Dis 157:832–835

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nir Y, Goldwasser R, Lasowski Y, Avivi A (1968) Isolation of arboviruses from wild birds in Israel. Am J Epidem 86:372–378

    Google Scholar 

  • Nosek J, Folk Č (1977) Relationships of birds to arboviruses and their vectors. Acta Sci Nat Brno 11(9):1–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Olson K, Trent DW (1985) Genetic and antigenic variations among geographical isolates of Sindbis virus. J Gen Virol 66:797–810

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Papaevangelou G, Halstead SB (1977) Infections with two dengue viruses in Greece in the 20th century. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:46–51

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pavri KM, Singh KRP (1969) Activity of Chittoor virus in India. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera supergroup. SAS, Bratislava, pp 191–197

    Google Scholar 

  • Peters CJ, Leduc JW (1990) Bunyaviruses, phleboviruses and related viruses. In: Belshe RB (ed) Textbook of human virology. PSG, Littleton, pp 547–598

    Google Scholar 

  • Pialoux G, Gaüzčre BA, Jauréguiberry S, Strobel M (2007) Chikungunya, an epidemic arbovirosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7:319–327

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pilaski J, Mackenstein H (1985) Nachweis des Tahyna-Virus bei Stechmücken in zwei verschiedenen europäischen Naturherden. Zentralbl Bakteriol 180:394–420

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Powers AM, Logue CH (2007) Changing patterns of Chikungunya cirus: re-emergence of a zoonotic arbovirus. J Gen Virol 88:2363–2377

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rappole JH, Hubálek Z (2003) Migratory birds and West Nile virus. J Appl Microbiol 94(Suppl.):47–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z (2000) Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis 6:319–328

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, Cordioli P, Fortuna C, Boros S, Magurano F, Silvi G, Angelini P, Dottori M, Ciufolini MG, Majori GC, Cassone A (2007) Infection with Chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370:1840–1846

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rödl P, Bárdoš V, Ryba J (1979) Experimental transmission of Ťahyňa virus (California group) to wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) by mosquitoes. Folia Parasitol 26:61–64

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rödl P, Bárdoš V, Hubálek Z (1987) Experimental infection of the squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) with Ťahyňa virus (California group, Bunyaviridae). Folia Parasitol 34:189–191

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Romi R (2001) Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem. Ann Ist Super Sanita 37:241–247

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rosen L (1987) Sexual transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes albopictus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37:398–402

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rosický B, Málková D (eds) (1980) Ťahyňa virus natural focus in southern Moravia. Rozpravy ČSAV (Praha), Mat Přír Věd 90(7):1–107

  • Schmidt JR, Mansoury HK (1963) Natural and experimental infection of Egyptian equines with West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57:415–427

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scholte EJ, Schaffner F (2007) Waiting for the tiger: establishment and spread of the Aedes albopictus mosquito in Europe. In: Takken W, Knols BGJ (ed) Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe. Wageningen Academic, Wageningen, pp 241–260

    Google Scholar 

  • Semenov BF, Chunikhin SP, Karmysheva VYA, Yakovleva NI (1973) Studies of chronic arbovirus infections in birds. 1. Experiments with West Nile, Sindbis, Bhanja and Sicilian sandfly fever viruses. Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 2:79–83 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Shirako Y, Niklasson B, Dalrymple JM, Strauss EG, Strauss JH (1991) Structure of the Ockelbo virus genome and its relationship to other Sindbis viruses. Virology 182:753–764

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Šimková A, Sluka F (1973) Isolation of Ťahyňa virus from the blood of a case of influenza-like disease. Acta Virol 17:94

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Šimková A, Sluka F (1977) The etiopathogenetic importance of Ťahyňa virus for man. Lek Obzor (Bratislava) 26:341-348 (in Slovak)

    Google Scholar 

  • Skogh M, Espmark A (1982) Ockelbo disease: epidemic arthritis-exanthema syndrome in Sweden caused by Sindbis-virus like agent. Lancet 1:795–796

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sluka F (1969) The clinical picture of the Čalovo virus infection. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group. SAS, Bratislava, pp 337–339

    Google Scholar 

  • Sluka F, Šimková A (1972) Demonstration of human infection in the natural focus of the Valtice fever. Folia Parasitol 19:358

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smetana A, Danielová V, Kolman JM, Málková D, Minář J (1967) The isolation of the Čalovo virus from the mosquitoes of the group Anopheles maculipennis in southern Moravia. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 11:55–59

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith CEG, Macdonald WW, Webbs HE, Dawson PS, Mcmahon DA, Bowen ETW (1969) Arbovirus infections in Sarawak: isolation of a virus in the Bunyamwera group and studies of its epidemiology. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and Bunyamwera group. SAS, Bratislava, pp 199–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Smithburn KC, Hughes TP, Burke AW, Paul JH (1940) A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. Am J Trop Med 20:471–472

    Google Scholar 

  • Solomon T, Mallewa M (2001) Dengue and other emerging flaviviruses. J Infect 42:104–115

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stavskiy AV, Fedorova TN, Fedorov VG (1972) West Nile fever in experimentally infected rooks and wild ducks. In: Lvov DK (ed) Itogi VI Simp. po Izucheniyu Virusov Ekologhicheski Svyazannykh s Ptitsami. Inst. Virusol, Moskva, pp 42–46 (in Russian)

  • Straetemans M (ed) (2008) Vector-related risk mapping of the introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus in Europe. Eurosurveillance 13(7)

  • Tatum LM, Pacy JM, Frazier KS, Weege JF, Baldwin CA, Hullinger GA, Bossart GD, Altman NH (1999) Canine LaCrosse viral meningoencephalomyelitis with possible public health implications. J Vet Diagn Invest 11:184–188

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor RM, Hurlbut HS, Work TH, Kingston JR, Frotingham TE (1955) Sindbis virus: a newly recognized arthropod-transmitted virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 4:844–862

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Teichmann D, Göbels K, Niedrig M, Grobusch MP (2004) Dengue virus infection in travellers returning to Berlin, Germany: clinical, laboratory, and diagnostic aspects. Acta Trop 90:87–95

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Theiler M, Downs WG (1973) The arthropod-borne viruses of vertebrates. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven–London

    Google Scholar 

  • Theiler M, Casals J, Mouthousses C (1960) Etiology of the 1927–28 epidemic of Dengue in Greece. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 103:244–246

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Traavik T, Mehl R, Wiger R (1978) California encephalitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in southern and arctic Norway. Acta Path Microbiol Scand B 86:335–341

    Google Scholar 

  • Traavik T, Mehl R, Wiger R (1985) Mosquito-borne arboviruses in Norway: further isolations and detection of antibodies to California encephalitis viruses in human, sheep and wildlife sera. J Hyg 94:111–122

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Turell, Lundström JO, Niklasson B (1990) Transmission of Ockelbo virus by Aedes cinereus, Ae. communis, and Ae. excrucians (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in an enzootic area in central Sweden. J Med Entomol 27:266–268

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uryvaev LV, Zlobin AYu, Berezina LK, Ionova KS, Glushchenko OP, Parasyuk NA, Skvortsova TM, Lvov DK (1990) Comparative analysis of polypeptides of Sindbis and Karelian fever viruses. Vopr Virusol 35:393–396 (in Russian)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uryvaev LV, Vasilenko VA, Parasyuk NA, Ionova KS, Gushchina EA, Kullapere AA, Leibak E, Lvov DK (1992) Isolation and identification of Sindbis virus from migratory birds in Estonia. Vopr Virusol 37:67–70 (in Russian)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vanlandingham DL, Davis BS, Lvov DK, Samokhvalov EI, Lvov SD, Black WC, Higgs S, Beaty BJ (2002) Molecular characterization of California serogroup viruses isolated in Russia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:306–309

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vapalahti O, Plyusnin A, Cheng Y, Manni T, Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Vaheri A (1996) Inkoo and Tahyna, the European California serogroup bunyaviruses: sequence and phylogeny of the S RNA segment. J Gen Virol 77:1769–1774

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vinograd IA, Obukhova VR (1975) Isolation of arboviruses from birds in western Ukraine. Tr Inst Virusol (Moskva) 3:84–87 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Vinograd IA, Roghochiy EG (1978) Persistence of Batai virus, strain Olyka, in the bird organism. Virusy Virus Zabol 6:101–103 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Vinograd IA, Gaidamovich SYa, Obukhova VR, Vigovskiy AI, Emdina IA, Shevchenko LV, Rogochiy EG, Marushchak OG, Beletskaya GV (1973) Study of biological properties of Olyka virus isolated from mosquitoes (Culicidae) in western Ukraine. Vopr Virusol 17:714–719 (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Vinograd IA, Vigovskiy AI, Beletskaya GB, Rogochiy EG, Chumachenko SS (1980) To the ecology of Batai virus in the Danube delta. Ekol Virus (Moskva):93–97, (in Russian)

  • Vinograd IA, Vigovskiy AI, Chumachenko SS, Beletskaya GV, Rogochiy EG, Palchevskiy NV, Lutsyk BD (1981) New isolates of arboviruses in Ukraine and their biological characteristics. In: Gaidamovich SY (ed): Arbovirusy (Inst. Virusol, Moskva): 45–49 (in Russian)

  • Weissenböck H, Kolodziejek J, Url A, Lussy H, Rebel-Bauder B, Nowotny N (2002) Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 8:652–656

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weissenböck H, Kolodziejek J, Fragner K, Kuhn R, Pfeffer M, Nowotny N (2003) Usutu virus activity in Austria, 2001–2002. Microb Infect 5:1132–1136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weissenböck H, Chvala-Mannsberger S, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N (2007) Emergence of Usutu virus in central Europe: diagnosis, surveillance and epizootiology. In: Takken W, Knols BGJ (eds) Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe. Wageningen Academic, Wageningen, pp 153–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodall JP (1969) Human infections with arboviruses of the Bunyamwera group. In: Bárdoš V et al (ed) Arboviruses of the California complex and Bunyamwera group. SAS, Bratislava, pp 317–332

    Google Scholar 

  • Yanase T, Kato T, Yamakawa M, Takayoshi K, Nakamura K, Kokuba T, Tsuda T (2006) Genetic characterization of Batai virus indicates a genomic reassortment between orthobunyaviruses in nature. Arch Virol 151:2253–2260

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

The review was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IAA 600930611).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zdenek Hubálek.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hubálek, Z. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe. Parasitol Res 103 (Suppl 1), 29–43 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1064-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1064-7

Keywords

Navigation