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Distribution of sand flies in El-Nekheil province, in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah region, western of Saudi Arabia

Abstract

An entomological survey for sand flies was conducted at an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis—El-Nekheil in Northeast Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. Standardized sampling with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and sticky traps was employed to determine monthly trends in species composition, density, sex ratio, and reproductive status and Leishmania infection rate of vector sand flies. A total of 621 sand flies were collected from March 2006 to November 2007. Six species representing two genera were identified, three Phlebotomus species: P. papatasi, P. sergenti, and P. bergeroti; and three Sergentomyia species: S. antennata, S. sergenti, and S. shewtzi. Phlebotomus papatasi was the predominant anthropophagic species found and comprised more than 70% of the sand fly population. A population peak (June) was observed for this species. The density of P. papatasi intra-domiciliary was higher than extra-domiciliary stations and inflated by a greater proportion of female flies. Of 189 dissected Phlebotomus females, 43% were blood-fed. No Leishmania parasites were found. The proportion of gravid P. papatasi increased progressively during the 5-month period from May to September and averaged 38%. Proportions of gravid flies may be a valid indicator of the physiological age and epidemiologic importance of the vector sand fly population at this focus.

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Acknowledgment

We are grateful to staff of laboratories and Vector Born Diseases, Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA for having contributed to the data collection and for taking part in the study.

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Correspondence to Ayman El-Badry.

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El-Badry, A., Al-Juhani, A., Ibrahim, EK. et al. Distribution of sand flies in El-Nekheil province, in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah region, western of Saudi Arabia. Parasitol Res 103, 151 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0942-3

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Keywords

  • Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
  • Sticky Trap
  • Leishmania Parasite
  • Phlebotomus Papatasi
  • Considerable Public Health Importance