Skip to main content


Log in

Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is grouped within African schistosomes based on phylogenetic analyses using sequences of mitochondrial genes

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In the present study, samples representing Orientobilharzia turkestanicum from cattle, sheep, and cashmere goat in Daqing District, Heilongjiang Province, China, were characterized and grouped genetically by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene (nad1). Genomic DNAs were extracted from parasites isolated from individual host by sodium dodecyl sulfate-protease K treatment. The cox1 and nad1 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced and compared with that of other members of the Schistosomatidae available in GenBankTM, and phylogenetic relationships between them were re-constructed using the neighbor-joining method. The results showed that the lengths of cox1 and nad1 sequences were 1,125 and 518 bp, respectively, for all O. turkestanicum samples sequenced. The identities of cox1 sequences of O. turkestanicum from cattle, sheep, and cashmere goat in Daqing, China with that of O. turkestanicum from sheep in Iran were 99.4%, 99.7%, and 99.8%, respectively. The identities of nad1 sequences of O. turkestanicum from cattle, sheep, and cashmere goat in Daqing, China with that of O. cheni from cashmere goat at Fuyu, Heilongjiang Province, China were 99.4%, 99.0%, and 100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the cox1 and nad1 sequences revealed that O. turkestanicum is placed within the African schistosomes, and O. turkestanicum should be considered the sister species of Schistosoma spp.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Abdussalam M, Sarwar MH (1952) Occurrence of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Pakistan. Proc 4th Pakistan Sci Conf 3:143

    Google Scholar 

  • Arfaa F, Sabaghian H, Ale-Dawood H (1965) Studies on Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum (Skrjabin, 1913), Price, 1929 in Iran. Ann Parasitol 40:45–50

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Attwood SW, Upatham ES, Meng XH, Qiu DC, Southgate VR (2002) The phylogeography of Asian Schistosoma (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). Parasitology 125:99–112

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bai GM, Liu Z, Liu ZM (1963) Survey and research of the etiology of Swimmer’s Itch in Jilin province I. Orientobilharzia turkestanica and its relations associated with rice paddy itch. Proceedings of Scientific Conference in Parasitology in 1963. 167–168 (in Chinese)

  • Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1955) A revision of the genus Ornithobilharzia Odhner, 1912 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) (Abstract). Proc 42nd Sci Congr 3:285

    Google Scholar 

  • Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1961) A revision of the genus Ornithobilharzia Odhner (1912), with the creation of two genera Orientobilharzia Dutt and Srivastava (1955) and Sinobilharzia Dutt and Srivastava (1955) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). Indian J Helminthol 13:61–73

    Google Scholar 

  • Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1964) Studies on the life history of Orientobilharzia tukestanicum (Skrjabin, 1913) Sutt and Srivastava, 1955 (Preliminary report). Curr Sci 33:752–753

    Google Scholar 

  • Farley B (1971) A review of the family Schistosomatidae: excluding the genus Schistosoma from mammals. J Helminthol 45:289–320

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hsü HF (1938) Schistosoma turkestanicum in North China. Chin Med J 54:1240–1243

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M (2004) MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5:150–163

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Machattie C (1936) A preliminary note on the life-history of Schistosoma turkestanicum (Skrijabin, 1913). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 30:115–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Massoud J (1971) The pathology of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and Schistosoma bovis in cattle, sheep and goats in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65:431

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Massound J, Nelson GS (1972) Studies on heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis. 6. Observations on cross-immunity to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum, Schistosoma bovis, S. mansoni, and S. haematobium in mice, sheep, and cattle in Iran. Bull WHO 47:591–600

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Massoud J (1973) Studies on the schistosomes of domestic animals in Iran. I. Observations on Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum (Skrjabin, 1913) in Khuzestan. J Helminthol 47:165–180

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Price EW (1929) A synopsis of the trematode family Schistosomatidae with descriptions of new genera and species. Proc US Nat Mus Wash 75(18):1–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Sahba GH, Malek EA (1979) Dermatitis caused by cercariae of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum in the Caspian Sea area of Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:912–913

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sara VB, Loker ES (2005) Can specialized pathogens colonize distantly related hosts? Schistosome evolution as a case study. PLoS Pathog 1 (3):e38

    Google Scholar 

  • Skrjabin KI (1913) Schistosomum turkestanicum, nov. sp., ein neuer parasit des Rinder aus Russich-Turkestan. Ztschr Infektionskr u Haus tier 13:457–468

    Google Scholar 

  • Snyder SD, Loker ES (2000) Evolutionary relationships among the Schistosomatidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) and an Asian origin for Schistosoma. J Parasitol 86:283–288

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Srivastava HD, Trisal KN (1957) On the occurrence of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in cattle in India. Proc 44th Indian Sci Congr 3:370

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang CT, Tang ZZ, Cao H, Tang L, Cui GW, Qian YC, Lü HC (1983a) Studies on the Ornithobilharzia turkestanica in sheep in the eastern part of the Inner Mongol Autonomous Region. Acta Zool Sinica 29:249–255 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang CT, Cui GW, Qian YC, He YX (1983b) Scanning electron microscopy of the integumental surface of Orientobilharzia turkestanica. Acta Zool Sinica 29:159–162 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang CR, Xu LM, Wang HX, Qiu JH, Xu MQ, He GS, Jiang Y, Yu WC, Wang QF (2000a) Application of dot-immunogold filtration assay in detection of orientobilharziasis of sheep. Heilongjiang J Ani Sci Vet Med 5:24–25 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang CR, Han Y, Xu LM, Yu WC, Qiu JH, Yu KJ, Wang WJ, Qu H, Zou DH (2000b) Observation of effect of “Kangxuexichong II” against Orientobilharzia spp. in naturally infective sheep. Heilongjiang J Ani Sci Vet Med 6:20–21 (in Chinese)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang CR, Pi BA, Song Z, Yu SJ, Zhang JM, Wang MY, Fu CM, Xu LM, Yu WC, Qiu JH (2002) Investigation on the epidemic situation and the distribution feature of Orientobilharziasis in cattle and sheep in Heilongjiang. Progr Vet Med 23:91–93 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Witenberg G, Lengy J (1966) A case of natural infection of field rats with Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913). Refuah Vet 23:67–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu ST, Yang P (1957) A preliminary study on blood flukes of cattle and sheep in Kansu province, including descriptions of a new species. Acta Vet Zootech Sinica 2:117–124 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Yamagiwa S (1931) A study of lesions caused by the invasion of Schistosoma turkestanicum in cattle. J Jap Soc Vet Sci 2:131–132

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu XQ, Podolska M, Liu JS, Yu HQ, Chen HH, Lin ZX, Luo CB, Song HQ, Lin RQ (2007) Identification of anisakid nematodes with zoonotic potential from Europe and China by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Parasitol Res 101:1703–1707

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


Project support was provided in part by grants from the Scientific Research Fund of Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department (Grant No. 11511253) to CRW, and from the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB513104) to XQZ. The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which the experiments were performed.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. R. Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, L., Yu, L.Y., Zhu, X.Q. et al. Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is grouped within African schistosomes based on phylogenetic analyses using sequences of mitochondrial genes. Parasitol Res 102, 939–943 (2008).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: