Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae
- 371 Downloads
The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified in aqueous DMSO at 1% of the following products: thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and salicylic acid. Each of these was tested at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%) with five repetitions. The “larval packet test” was performed on approximately 100 larvae of B. microplus at around 15 days of age. After applying the test substances, the envelopes were kept at 27°C and UR >80% and opened after 24 h to count the living and dead larvae. Of the four products tested, only thymol caused significant (up to 100%) mortality of B. microplus larvae. The mortality caused by the other products varied from 0.52 to 9.76%. Hence, thymol can be considered a potential agent to control bovine ticks.
KeywordsSalicylic Acid Thymol Menthol Methyl Salicylate Positive Control Group
The authors would like to thank Dr. John Furlong and Dr. Márcia Cristina de Azevedo Prata for their kind attention and contribution to the work. The experiments comply with the current Brazilian laws.
- Baggio A, Arculeo P, Nanetti A, Mutinelli E (2004) Field trials with different thymol-based products for the control of varroosis. Am Bee J 395–400Google Scholar
- Barros ATM, Evans DE (1989) Ação de gramíneas forrageiras em larvas infestantes do carrapato dos bovinos, B. microplus. Pesqui Vet Bras 9(1–2):17–21Google Scholar
- Carvalho AF, Melo VM, Craveiro AA, Machado MI, Bantim MB, Rabelo EF (2003) Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. Against Aedes aegypti Linn. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro 98(4):569–571Google Scholar
- Gomes A, Koller WW, Furlong J (1999) Diagnóstico da resistência a carrapaticidas do Boophilus microplus em bovinos de corte e leite no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. In: Seminário Brasileiro De Parasitologia Veterinária, 11. Anais Ilhéus: CBPV/Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Salvador, pp 74–75Google Scholar
- Horn SC (1983) Prováveis prejuízos causados pelos carrapatos. Boletim de Defesa Sanitária Animal, 2nd edn. Ministério da Agricultura, Brasília, p 79Google Scholar
- Imdorf A, Bogdanov S, Kilchemman V, Maquellilin C (1994) Apilife Var—Ein Varroabekämpfungsmittel mit dem Hauptwirkstoff Thymol. Schweiz Bienen-Ztg 6:326–333Google Scholar
- Leite RC (1988) Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887): Susceptibilidade, uso atual e retrospectiva de carrapaticidas em propriedades das regiões fisiogeográficas da baixada do Grande Rio e Rio de Janeiro. Uma abordagem Epidemiológica. PhD Thesis, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, p119Google Scholar
- Powell RT, Reid TJ (1982) Project tick control. Queens Agric J 108(6):279–300Google Scholar
- Yang YC, Lee SH, Lee WJ, Choi DH, Ahn YJ (2003) Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. J Agric Food Chem 51(17):484–488Google Scholar