Parasitology Research

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 681–687 | Cite as

Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates among residents of slum area in Manila, Philippines

  • John Anthony D. L. Yason
  • Windell L. RiveraEmail author
Original Paper


Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protist that causes gastrointestinal disease throughout the world. In the Philippines, study on G. duodenalis is limited. It is also believed that prevalence rates of this organism in the country are underestimated. In this study, stool samples from residents living in a slum area in Manila were collected. These were examined under microscopy for identification of common helminthic and protistan parasites. Results showed that 22.05% of 2,354 stool samples collected contained Giardia cysts. A fraction of samples (n = 133) positive for Giardia cysts were set aside. Genomic DNA was extracted from these samples and a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure based on the organism’s triose phosphate isomerase gene was utilized. This particular procedure is capable of distinguishing assemblages or genotypes within G. duodenalis. The highest identified assemblage was Assemblage B (86.47%). The two genotypes of Assemblage A were also detected. This is the first report on the identification of genotypes of G. duodenalis in the Philippines. The results of this study can serve as basis for future control and prevention of giardiasis and parasitism in the country.


Stool Sample Giardiasis Ascaris Lumbricoides Slum Area Giardia Cyst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful to the Department of Parasitology, College of Public Health, University of the Philippines, Manila for assistance in the sample collection.

The experiments conducted in this study comply with the current laws of the Philippines.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Anthony D. L. Yason
    • 1
    • 2
  • Windell L. Rivera
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Biology, College of ScienceUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Molecular Protozoology Laboratory, Natural Sciences Research InstituteUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines

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