Parasitology Research

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 563–567 | Cite as

The resistance of nematode parasites in sheep against anthelmintic drugs widely used in Western Turkey

  • Mustafa KöseEmail author
  • Esma Kozan
  • Feride K. Sevimli
  • Mustafa Eser
Original Paper


This study was carried out in seven sheep herds infected by gastro-intestinal nematodes in the Afyonkarahisar district (Western Turkey) from June to July 2005. Sixty sheep in each herd were distributed into 3 groups as anthelmintic treatment groups along with a control group containing 15 animals. The anthelmintic groups were treated with albendazole (7.5 mg/kg BW), oxfendazole (7.5 mg/kg BW)–oxyclosanide (15 mg/kg BW) combination and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg BW-injectable). The faecal samples were collected before treatment and after 10 days of treatment. Nematode egg counts per gram of faeces (EPG) were examined in the faecal samples using the McMaster technique. To identify the genus, the faecal samples were cultured. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECR) was employed to determine the resistance. In ivermectin treated groups, the FECR% values and the lower confidence limits were estimated as A: 68.57(14.77), B: 46.42(22.47), C: 84.41(35.38), D: 95.23(61.64), E: 97.14(76.94), F: 65.21(80.46) and G: 91.66(31.69), respectively. In the A, B, C, F and G herds, statistical analysis showed that the FECR% values were less then 95% and the estimated lower confidence limits were less then 90%. In all herds, albendazole treated, oxfendazole–oxyclosanide treated and control group, there were no eggs in the feacal samples. In these groups, the FECR% values were 100. In ivermectin treated groups, the third stage larvae from the genera Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus and Ostertagia were detected in coprocultures before treatment and the larvae from the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were detected in post-treatment coprocultures in the resistant herds. In conclusion, there was no evidence of resistance in sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes against albendazole and oxfendazole–oxyclosanide; in contrast, the resistance against ivermectin was detected in five sheep herds in the Afyonkarahisar district.


Ivermectin Albendazole Macrocyclic Lactone Moxidectin Anthelmintic Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Albonico M (2003) Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes. Acta Trop 86:233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burger HJ, Stoye M (1968) Parasitologische diagnostik (Teil II) eizahlung und larvendifferenzierung. Aus der Institut für Parasitologie. Tierärztliche Hochschule, Hannover, pp 9–21Google Scholar
  3. Čerňanská D, Várady M, Čorba J (2006) A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in the Slovak Republic. Vet Parasitol 135:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandrawathani P, Adnan M, Waller PJ (1999) Anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat farms on Peninsular Malaysia. Vet Parasitol 82:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chartier C, Pors I, Hubert J, Rocheteau D, Benoit C, Bernard N (1998) Prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in sheep and goats in Western France. Small Rumin Res 29:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coles GC (2005) Anthelmintic resistance—looking to the future: a UK perspective. Res Vet Sci 78:99–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coles GC, Roush RT (1992) Slowing the spread of anthelmintic resistant nematodes of sheep and goats in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 114:562–564Google Scholar
  8. Coles GC, Bauer C, Borgsteede FH, Geeerts S, Klei TR, Taylor MA, Waller PJ (1992) World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 44:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Çırak VY, Güleğen E, Bauer C (2004) Benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomin populations on horse farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Parasitol Res 93:392–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gilleard JS (2006) Understanding anthelmintic resistance: the need for genomics and genetics. Int J Parasitol 36:1227–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gopal RM, Pomroy WE, West DM (1999) Resistance of field isolates of Trichostrongylus colibriformis and Ostertagis circumcincta to ivermectin. Int J Parasitol 29:781–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaplan RM (2004) Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends in Parasitology 20(10):477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kotze AC, Dobson RJ, Tyrrell KL, Stein PA (2002) High-level ivermectin resistance in a field isolate of Haemonchus contortus associated with a low level of resistance in larval stage: implications for resistance detection. Vet Parasitol 108:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kwa MSG, Veenstra JG, Roos MH (1994) Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus is correlated with a conserved mutation at amino acid 200 in beta-tubulin isotype 1. Mol Biochem Parasitol 63:299–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maingi N, Bjorn H, Gichohi VM, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM (1998) Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua district of Kenya. Acta Trop 69:31–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martin PJ, Anderson N, Lwin T, Nelson G, Morgan T (1984) The association between frequency of thiabendazole treatment and the development of resistance in field isolates Ostertagia spp. of sheep. Int J Parasitol 14:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ranjan S, Wang GT, Hirschlein C, Simkins KL (2002) Selection for resistance to macrocyclic lactones by Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Vet Parasitol 103:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sangster NC (1999) Anthelmintic resistance: past, present and future. Int J Parasitol 29:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sangster NC, Gill J (1999) Pharmacology of anthelmintic resistance. Parasitol Today 15(4):141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schnyder M, Torgerson PR, Schönmann M, Kohler L, Hertzberg H (2005) Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus isolated from South African Boer goats in Switzerland. Vet Parasitol 128:285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sutherland IA, Leathwick DM, Moen IC, Bisset SA (2002) Resistance to therapeutic treatment with macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in Ostertagia circumcincta. Vet Parasitol 109:91–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Taylor MA, Hunt KR, Goodyear KL (2002) Anthelmintic detection methods. Vet Parasitol 103:183–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tınar R, Akyol ÇV, Çırak VY, Şenlik B, Bauer C (2005) Investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Parasitol Res 96:18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Torgerson PR, Schnyder M, Hertzberg H (2005) Detection of anthelmintic resistance: a comparison of mathematical techniques. Vet Parasitol 128:291–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Torres-Acosta JFJ, Dzul-Canche U, Aguilar-Caballero AJ, Rodríguez-Vivas RI (2003) Prevalence of benzimidazole resistant nematodes in sheep flocks in Yucaton, Mexico. Vet Parasitol 114:33–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. van Wyk JA, Cabaret J, Michael LM (2004) Morphological identification of nematode larvae of small ruminants and cattle. Vet Parasitol 119:277–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Waller PJ (1999) International approaches to the concept of integrated control of nematode parasites of livestock. Int J Parasitol 29:155–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Köse
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esma Kozan
    • 1
  • Feride K. Sevimli
    • 1
  • Mustafa Eser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ParasitologyAfyonkarahisar Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey

Personalised recommendations