Skip to main content
Log in

Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Parasitology Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


To study the transmission route and epidemiological features of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area, which is the biggest immigration city in the south of China, we examined 1,473 individuals (710 males and 763 females) to assess the current status of C. sinensis infection among the people in a village of Shenzhen in Zhujiang delta of Guangdong province, China. Freshwater snails, 630, of different species known as the first intermediate host of C. sinensis were collected and examined for cercaria infection, and 430 freshwater fishes of different species as the second intermediate host were examined for metacercaria infection. Among 1,473 people examined, 70 (4.75%) were found infected with C. sinensis. By counting eggs per gram feces (EPG), it was found that the intensity of infection in males was stronger than that of females, and the average EPG was 41.87 in all population. Snails, 1.15%, were infected with cercariae of C. sinensis. The average infection rate of freshwater fishes of 15 species with metacercariae of C. sinensis was 16.97%, and the carps reached the highest infection rate (40.74%). A questionnaire was designed with 12 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment, and fishponds. Of 1,473 interviewees, 54% did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 12% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection causes no harm or only slight harm to their health. Of the interviewees, 27%, ate raw fish at least one to two times per month. Of families, 5% used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. Of the fishpond owners, 40% fed their fishes with feces of domestic animals and humans. All these factors of unhealthy behaviors, poor knowledge, inappropriate farming/fishery practices, and eating raw fish have made the prevalence of clonorchiasis increase in humans in the Shenzhen area. It is urgent to perform a control program, including health education, environmental modification, reform of traditional farming/fishery practice, mass screening, and chemotherapy for humans, and the management of domestic animals to decrease C. sinensis infection in the human population in Shenzhen.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Bae KH, Ahn YK, Soh CT, Tsutsumi H (1993) Epidemiological studies on Clonorchis sinensis infection Along the Nam-River in Gyeongnam province, Korea. Kisaengchunghak Chapchi 21(2):167–186

    Google Scholar 

  • Choi D, Hong ST, Lim JH, Cho SY, Rim HJ, Ji Z, Yuan R, Wang S (2004) Sonographic findings of active Clonorchis sinensis infection. J Clin Ultrasound 32(1):17–23

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Choi MS, Choi D, Choi MH, Ji Z, Cho SY, Hong KS, Rim HJ, Hong ST (2005) Correlation between sonographic findings and infection intensity in clonorchiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73(6):1139–1144

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Choi D, Lim JH, Lee KT, Lee JK, Choi SH, Heo JS, Jang KT, Lee NY, Kim S, Hong S (2006) Cholangiocarcinoma and Clonorchis sinensis infection: a case-control study in Korea. J Hepatol 44(6):1066–1073

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ju YH, Oh JK, Kong HJ, Sohn WM, Kim JI, Jung KY, Kim YG, Shin HR (2005) Epidemiologic study of Clonorchis sinensis infestation in a rural area of Kyongsangnam-do, South Korea. J Prev Med Pub Health 38(4):425–430

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim BJ, Ock MS, Kim IS, Yeo UB (2002) Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis in residents of Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korean. J Parasitol 40(4): 191–193

    Google Scholar 

  • Lim MK, Ju YH, Franceschi S, Oh JK, Kong HJ, Hwang SS, Park SK, Cho SI, Sohn WM, Kim DI, Yoo KY, Hong ST, Shin HR (2006) Clonorchis sinensis infection and increasing risk of cholangiocarcinoma in the Republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75(1):93–96

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lin R, Li X, Lan C, Yu S, Kawanaka M (2005) Investigation on the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in an area of south China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36(5):1114–1117

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lun ZR, Gasser RB, Lai DH, Li AX, Zhu XQ, Yu XB, Fang YY (2005) Clonorchiasis: a key foodborne zoonosis in China. Lancet Infect Dis 5(1):31–41

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parvathi A, Sanath Kumar H, Kenchanna Prakasha B, Lu J, Xu X, Hu W, Feng Z, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I (2006) Clonorchis sinensis: development and evaluation of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Exp Parasitol 24:234–243

    Google Scholar 

  • Rim HJ (2005) Clonorchiasis: an update. J Helminthol 79(3):269–281

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yu SH, Kawanaka M, Li XM, Xu LQ, Lan CG, Rui L (2003) Epidemiological investigation on Clonorchis sinensis in human population in area of South China. Jpn J infect Dis 56(4):168–171

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yucai Fu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zhang, R., Gao, S., Geng, Y. et al. Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China. Parasitol Res 101, 179–183 (2007).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: