Skip to main content

Biological control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus by different strains of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium psalliotae fungi

Abstract

Virulence of 11 native strains of entomopathogenic fungi; Metarhizium anisopliae (three strains), Beauveria bassiana (six strains) and Lecanicillium psalliotae (two strains) collected from different parts of Iran, were studied against different developmental stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. After the exposure of ticks to the fungal strains in different concentrations (i.e. 103, 105, 107 conidia/ml), various parameters such as mortality rate and reproductive efficiency of engorged females, mortality of unfed tick larvae and eclosion percentage of infected eggs were evaluated to determine the fungal virulence. Based on the obtained results, five strains including M. anisopliae (IRAN 437 C and DEMI 001), B. bassiana (IRAN 403 C) and L. psalliotae (IRAN 468 C and IRAN 518 C) were found to be virulent to various stages of tick developmental cycle. Mortality rate of engorged females was found to be dose-dependent with regard to the conidial concentration used. Total mortality rates of 90–100%, 70% and 56.6% were observed for M. anisopliae (IRAN 437 C and DEMI 001), B. bassiana (IRAN 403 C) and L. psalliotae (IRAN 468 C), 6–11 days post inoculation (PI) with 107 conidia/ml, respectively. Most strains were able to inhibit egg laying by females in the range of 0–26% in different conidial concentrations. The results indicated that the mean egg laying of treated engorged tick females exposed to M. anisopliae (IRAN 437 C) was less than the mean values of those treated with other fungal strains. Results revealed 89.1%, 35.5% and 56.3% decrease in egg hatchability and 88.69%, 78.15% and 59.74% reduction in reproductive efficiency of the ticks using 107 conidia/ml of M. anisopliae (IRAN 437 C), B. bassiana (IRAN 403 C) and L. psalliotae (IRAN 468 C), respectively. In general, the entomopathogenic effects of native M. anisopliae and B. bassiana against various developmental stages of R. (B.) annulatus were confirmed in the present work. Likewise, although L. psalliotae, which was introduced for the first time as an entomopathogenic fungus against tick had not more than 13.3% mortality effect against adult females, but its effect on egg hatchability and reproductive efficiency was remarkable.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Bitencourt VREP, Masard CL, De Lima AF (1995) Infection dynamics of the tick Boophilus microplus by the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Revista Universidade Rural, Ceri Ciencias Davida 17:83–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Gindin G, Samish M, Alekseev E, Glazer I (2001) The susceptibility of Boophilus annulatus (Ixodidae) ticks to entomopathogenic fungi. Biocontrol Sci Technol 11:111–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gindin G, Samish M, Zangi G, Mishoutchenko A, Glazer I (2002) The susceptibility of different species and stages of tick to entomopathogenic fungi. Exp Appl Acarol 28:283–288

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horak IG, Camicas JL, Keirans JE (2002) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttallidae (Acari: Ixodidae): a world list of valid tick names. Exp Appl Acarol 28:27–54

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaaya GP, Mwangi EN, Ouna EA (1996) Prospects for biological control of livestock ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyoma variegatum, using the entomogenus fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. J Invertebr Pathol 67:15–20

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kalsbeek V, Frandsen F, Steenberg T (1995) Entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks. Exp Appl Acarol 19:45–51

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maranga RO, Kaaya GP, Mueke JM, Hassanali A (2005) Effects of combining the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhiziumanisopliae on the mortality of the tick Amblyomma variegatum (ixodidae) in relation to seasonal changes. Mycopathologia 159:527–532

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Onofre SB, Miniuk CM, de Barros NM, Azevedo JL (2001) Pathogenicity of four strains of entomopathogenic fungi against the bovine tick Boophilus microplus. Am J Vet Res 62(9):1478–1480

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Polar P, Kairo MT, Peterkin D, Moore D, Pegram R, John SA (2005) Assessment of fungal isolates for development of a myco-acaricide for cattle tick control. Vector Born Zeonotic Dis 5:276–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samish M, Rehacek JA (1999) Pathogens and predators of tick and their potential in biological control. Ann Rev Entomol 44:159–182

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zare R, Gams W (2001) A revision of Verticillium section Prostrata. IV. The genus Lecanicillium and Simplicillium gen. nov. Nova Hedwig 73:1–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Zare R, Gams W (2004) A monograph of Verticillium section Prostrata. Rostaniha (Suppl 3) 188 pp (in English and 4 pp in Persian)

  • Zare R, Gams W, Culham A (2000) A revision of Verticillium sect. Prostrata. I. Phylogenetic studies using ITS sequences. Nova Hedwig 71:465–480

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hamidreza Haddadzadeh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pirali-Kheirabadi, K., Haddadzadeh, H., Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. et al. Biological control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus by different strains of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium psalliotae fungi. Parasitol Res 100, 1297–1302 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0410-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0410-x

Keywords

  • Fungal Strain
  • Entomopathogenic Fungus
  • Tick Species
  • Post Inoculation
  • Babesiosis