Dietary supplementation with Echinacea and development of immunity to challenge infection with coccidia

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.1% and 0.5% ground root preparations of Echinacea purpurea (EP; common name: purple cone flower) on the development of immunity following live vaccination and subsequent challenge with multiple coccidia species in an experimental model using a commercial live vaccine preparation. Effects of immunization and EP supplementation on weight gains before challenge, and weight gains, lesion scores and plasma levels of carotenoids and NO2 -+NO3 - following challenge were determined. In this experiment, combined live vaccination and feed supplementation with 0.1% or 0.5% EP during the first 2 weeks of life provided significant weight gain advantage compared to live vaccination alone. This advantage persisted through 2 weeks of EP withdrawal and subsequent challenge infection. EP supplementation also significantly lowered total lesion scores but did not significantly modify the effects of vaccination and challenge on plasma carotenoids or NO2 -+NO3 -.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1. A
Fig. 2A–C.

References

  1. Allen PC (1997) Production of free radical species during Eimeria maxima infections in chickens. Poultry Sci 76:814–821

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Allen PC, Danforth HD, Gregory SA, Comens-Keller P (1997) Assessment of recombinant bovine somatotropin as an immunomodulator during avian coccidiosis: immunization with living oocysts. Poultry Sci 76:1150–1155

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Bauer R (1996) Echinacea drugs, effects and active ingredients. Z Aerztl Fortbild (Jena) 90:111–115

    Google Scholar 

  4. Burger RA, Torres AR, Warren RP, Caldwell VD, Hughs BG (1997) Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. Int J Immunopharmacol 19:371–379

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Currier NL, Miller SC (2001) Echinacea purpurea and melatonin augment natural-killer cells in leukemic mice and prolong life span. J Altern Complement Med 7:241–251

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Danforth HD (1998) Use of live oocyst vaccines in the control of avian coccidiosis: experimental studies and field trials. Int J Parasitol 28:1099–1109

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Gazzinelli RT, Eltoum I, Wynn TA, Sher A (1993) Acute cerebral toxoplasmosis is induced by in vivo neutralization of TNF-α, and correlates with down regulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and other markers of macrophage activation. J Immunol 151:3672–3681

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Goel V, Chang C, Slama JV, Barton R, Bauer R, Gahler R, Basu TK (2002) Alkylimides of Echinacea purpurea stimulate alveolar macrophage function in normal rats. Int Immunopharmacol 2–3:381–387

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hobbs C (1989) The Echinacea handbook. Miovich M (ed). Eclectic Medical, Portland, Ore.

  10. Johnson J, Reid M (1970) Anticoccidial drugs: lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor pen experiments with chickens. Exp Parasitol 28:30–36

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Laurent F, Mancassola R, Lacroix S, Menezes R, Naciri M (2001) Analysis of chicken mucosal immune response to Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infection by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Infect Immun 69:2527–2534

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Lillehoj HS, Lillehoj EP (2001) Avian coccidiosis. A review of acquired intestinal immunity and vaccine strategy. Avian Dis 44:408–425

    Google Scholar 

  13. O'Neill W, McKee S, Clark AF (2002) Immunological and haematinic consequences of feeding a standardized Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract to healthy horses. Equine Vet J 34:222–227

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Roesler J, Stienmueller C, Kiderlen A, Emmendorffer A, Wagner H, Lohmann-Matthes ML (1991) Application of purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant Echinacea purpurea to mice mediates protection against systemic infections with Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans. Int J Immunopharmacol 13:27–37

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. SAS Institute (1990) SAS/STAT user's guide, vol 2. SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.

  16. Schuberth HJ, Riedel-Caspari G, Leibold W (2002) Flow cytometric testing of immunological effects of a phytomedicinal combination (equimun) and its compounds on bovine leucocytes. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 49:291–298

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. See DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG (1997) In vitro effects of Echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 35:229–235

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Stahl M, Reifenberg K, Okpanyi S, Losch U (1990) Porcine granulocyte functions: evaluation and modulation. Zentralbl Veterinarmed 37:261–267

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Stephen B, Rommel M, Daugshies A, Haberkorn A, (1997) Studies of resistance to anticoccidials in field isolates and pure strains. Vet Parasitol 69:19–29

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Stimple M, Proksch A, Wagner H, Lohmann-Matthes M-L (1984) Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea. Infect Immun 46:845–849

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Sun LZ, Currier NL, Miller SC (1999) The American coneflower: a prophylactic role involving nonspecific immunity. J Altern Complement Med 5:437–446

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Sung YJ, Hotchkiss JH, Austic RE, Dietert RR (1991) L-arginine-dependent production of a reactive nitrogen intermediate by macrophages of uricotelic species. J Leukoc Biol 50:49–56

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Verdon CP, Burton BA, Pryor RL (1995) Sample pretreatment with nitrate reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase quantitatively reduces nitrate while avoiding interference by NADPH when the Griess reaction is used to assay for nitrite. Anal Biochem 224:502–508.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Xie QW, Nathan C (1994) The high-output nitric oxide pathway: role and regulation. J Leukoc Biol 56:576–582

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Yvore P, Mainguy P (1972) Influence de la coccidiose duodenale sur la tenure en carotenoids du serum chez le poulet. Ann Rech Vet 3:381–387

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The author thanks USDA employees Eli Miramontes, Harlyn Skinner, and Gary Wilkins for their excellent technical assistance, H. Danforth for scoring lesions, Mark Anderson, TriArco Industries for providing the Echinacea supplement, and E.H. Lee of Vtech Ltd.for providing the Immucox vaccine.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Patricia C. Allen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Allen, P.C. Dietary supplementation with Echinacea and development of immunity to challenge infection with coccidia. Parasitol Res 91, 74–78 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-003-0938-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Live Vaccine
  • Lesion Score
  • Challenge Infection
  • Plasma Carotenoid
  • Echinacea Purpurea