Dental anomalies in pinnipeds (Carnivora: Otariidae and Phocidae): occurrence and evolutionary implications

Abstract

Dental anomalies comprise variations in number, shape, size, position and occlusion of teeth, mainly caused by genetic mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the nature and prevalence of dental anomalies in a large sample of pinnipeds (Otariidae and Phocidae) and to discuss potential evolutionary and ecological implications. Thirty-four species in twenty genera were sampled. The dentition of the specimens examined was compared with the normal dental formula for the species, and supernumerary and congenitally missing teeth were identified and recorded. Agenesis was observed in 0.93 % of the specimens analyzed (n = 10), being more frequent in otariids. The posteriormost upper postcanines were the teeth absent most frequently. Supernumerary teeth were observed in 1.8 % of the specimens (n = 19), more commonly in phocids. Supernumerary teeth can be interpreted as either atavistic manifestations (particularly for the posteriormost postcanines in Otariidae) or cases of disturbances in dental morphogenesis leading to the formation of extra teeth when they occur in other positions of the tooth row. Morphological dental variants such as ectopic and geminated teeth were also recorded. Cases of dental anomalies should have a limited effect on the functional morphology of the feeding apparatus in pinnipeds, with little influence on the fitness and performance of the animals. Nevertheless, understanding patterns of dental variation should contribute to future studies aiming to elucidate aspects of dental evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of pinnipeds.

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Acknowledgments

Thanks are extended to the curators of the scientific collections visited for allowing us to study the specimens under their care: Robert Asher and Mathew Lowe (Museum of Zoology Cambridge); Mark Carnall (Grant Museum of Zoology, UCL); Malgosia Nowak-Kemp (Oxford University Museum of Natural History); Graham Stone (University of Edinburgh); Roberto Portela-Miguez, Richard Sabin and Louise Tomsett (Natural History Museum, London); Ronald Vonk (Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam); Christine Lefèvre (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle) and Frieder Mayer (Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). Jules A. Kieser (in memoriam) and Robert Boessenecker patiently revised early drafts of this study. Alexander Werth and an anonymous referee provided valuable suggestions that greatly improved this manuscript. D. Sanfelice acknowledges CAPES for a Postdoctoral fellowship and is indebted to Anjali Goswami (UCL), the Centre for Ecology and Evolution (UCL) and Synthesys (especially Manja Voss, DE-TAF Office) for their financial and logistic support. C Loch acknowledges the Sir John Walsh Research Institute for a Postdoctoral Fellowship and Jules A. Kieser for the inspirational mentoring in life and research.

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Correspondence to Carolina Loch.

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Communicated by A. Schmidt-Rhaesa.

Appendix 1: Specimens examined

Appendix 1: Specimens examined

Otariidae. Arctocephalus australis: BMNH-1013.e, BMNH-1879.8.21.5, BMNH-1880.7.28.17, BMNH-1919.7.7.10090, BMNH-1949.3.17.1, BMNH-1949.3.17.11, BMNH-1949.3.17.13, BMNH-1949.3.17.15, BMNH-1949.3.17.16, BMNH-1949.3.17.19, BMNH-1949.3.17.21, BMNH-1949.3.17.23, BMNH-1949.3.17.34, BMNH-1949.3.17.38, BMNH-1949.3.17.5, BMNH-1949.3.17.58, BMNH-1949.3.17.6, BMNH-1949.3.17.8, BMNH-1949.3.17.9, BMNH-1950.11.14.1, BMNH-1984.954, BMNH-1984.956, BMNH-1984919, BMNH-1984942, BMNH-83.314, BMNH-84.91, BMNH-84.911, BMNH-84.912, BMNH-84.915, BMNH-84.916, BMNH-84.918, BMNH-84.921, BMNH-84.923, BMNH-84.925, BMNH-84.928, BMNH-84.93, BMNH-84.932, BMNH-84.935, BMNH-84.937, BMNH-84.947, BMNH-84.957, BMNH-84.959, BMNH-84.967, BMNH-84.968, BMNH-84.97, BMNH-84.974, BMNH-84.978, BMNH-84917, BMNH-84933, BMNH-84938, BMNH-84940, BMNH-84948, BMNH-84973, MNHB-4961. Arctocephalus forsteri: BMNH-1968.9.26.2, BMNH-1872.6.25.1, BMNH-1876.2.15.4, BMNH-1876.2.16.5, BMNH-1897.10.10.6, BMNH-1968.9.26.4, BMNH-1968.9.26.6, BMNH-1968.9.26.9, MNHB-70660, UMZC 7422, UMZC 7423, UMZC 7424, UMZC 7427, UMZC 7429, UMZC 7434. Arctocephalus galapagoensis: BMNH-1991.1, BMNH-1991.2, BMNH-1991.3, MNHN-1962-1152, MNHN-1962-1153, MNHN-1962-1157, MNHN-1962-1159. Arctocephalus gazella: BMNH-1958.4.24.4, BMNH-1958.4.24.5, BMNH-1958.4.24.6, BMNH-1960.8.10.13, BMNH-1960.8.10.14, BMNH-1960.8.10.19, BMNH-1960.8.10.2, BMNH-1960.8.10.24, BMNH-1960.8.10.29, BMNH-1960.8.10.30, BMNH-1960.8.10.31, BMNH-1960.8.10.32, BMNH-1960.8.10.33, BMNH-1960.8.10.34, BMNH-1960.8.10.36, BMNH-1960.8.10.37, BMNH-1960.8.10.38, BMNH-1960.8.10.39, BMNH-1960.8.10.41, BMNH-1960.8.10.46, BMNH-1960.8.10.49, BMNH-1960.8.10.5, BMNH-1960.8.10.50, BMNH-1960.8.10.51, BMNH-1960.8.10.54, BMNH-1960.8.10.55, BMNH-1960.8.10.7, BMNH-1960.8.10.8, BMNH-1960.81.10.57, BMNH-1962.10.16.1, BMNH-1962.6.14.13, BMNH-1962.6.14.14, BMNH-1962.6.14.15, BMNH-1962.6.14.16, BMNH-1964.9.22.1, BMNH-1964.9.22.2, BMNH-1980.8.4.4, BMNH-1981.1239, BMNH-1981.124, BMNH-1981.1241, BMNH-1981.1243, BMNH-1981.125, BMNH-1981.1251, BMNH-1981.1254, BMNH-1981.1255, BMNH-1981.1257, BMNH-1981.1258, BMNH-1991.4, MNHB-86626, UMZC 7321.A, UMZC 7321.B, UMZC 7321.C, UMZC 7321.D, UMZC 7321.E, UMZC 7321.F, UMZC 7321.G, UMZC 7321.H, UMZC 7321.I, UMZC 7321.J, UMZC 7321.K, UMZC 7321.L, UMZC 7321.M, UMZC 7321.N, UMZC 7321.O. Arctocephalus philippii: BMNH-1883.11.8.1. Arctocephalus pusillus: BMNH-1220a, BMNH-1925.1.2.268, BMNH-1925.1.2.269, BMNH-1925.1.2.66, BMNH-1925.1.2.68, BMNH-1927.7.2.2, BMNH-1927.7.2.4, BMNH-1927.7.2.7, BMNH-1939.1889, BMNH-1953.4.9.1, BMNH-1953.4.9.2, MNHB-5175, MNHB-5176, OUM13884, UMZC 7361, BMNH-1883.7.28.1, BMNH-1883.7.28.13, BMNH-1887.5.6.1, BMNH-1889.2.20.1, BMNH-1960.1.29.1, BMNH-1960.1.29.2, BMNH-1960.1.29.3, BMNH-1960.1.29.4, BMNH-1960.1.29.6, BMNH-1968.9.26.1, BMNH-1968.9.26.10, BMNH-1968.9.26.11, BMNH-1968.9.26.12, UMZC 7425, UMZC 7426, MNHB-32100. Arctocephalus tropicalis: BMNH-1955.3.14.2, BMNH-1955.3.14.5, BMNH-1955.3.14.7, BMNH-1957.4.23.10, BMNH-1957.4.23.11, BMNH-1957.4.23.20, BMNH-1957.4.23.20, BMNH-1957.4.23.21, BMNH-1957.8.1.1, BMNH-1968.4.4.1, BMNH-1968.4.4.2, BMNH-1968.4.4.9, MNHB-5027, MNHN-1875-623, MNHN-1962-4146, MNHN-1962-4146, MNHN-1962-4147, MNHN-1962-4148, MNHN-1962-4149, MNHN-1962-4150, MNHN-1962-4151, MNHN-1962-4153, MNHN-1963-30, MNHN-1971-118, MNHN-1972-644, MNHN-1976-378, MNHN-1976-384, MNHN-1978-334, MNHN-1978-339, MNHN-1986-070, MNHN-1986-72, ZMA 19.584, ZMA 19.585. Callorhinus ursinus: BMNH-1878.5.10.2, BMNH-1891.12.18.10, BMNH-1891.12.18.9, BMNH-1891.18.12.11, BMNH-1893.1.28.2, BMNH-1897.1.18.10, BMNH-1897.2.17.2, BMNH-1928.4.21.45, BMNH-1928.4.21.52, BMNH-1928.4.21.53, BMNH-1928.4.21.54, BMNH-1928.4.21.55, BMNH-1928.4.21.59, BMNH-1928.4.21.60, BMNH-1928.4.21.61, BMNH-1928.4.21.63, BMNH-1928.4.21.65, BMNH-1928.4.21.67, BMNH-1950.3.29.4, BMNH-1950.3.29.5, BMNH-1950.3.29.6, BMNH-1950.3.29.7, BMNH-1951.2.15.1, BMNH-1960.5.2.2, MNHB-10111899, MNHB-37402, MNHB-37403, MNHB-5142, MNHB-5627, MNHB-5648, MNHB-74328, MNHN-1878-198, MNHN-26, MNHN-27, UMZC 7221, UMZC 7223.2, UMZC 7225.2, UMZC 7227.2 911.KA, UMZC 7227.2 911.KB, UMZC 7228, UMZC 7229, ZMA 17.131, ZMA 17.132, ZMA 17.992. Eumetopias jubatus: BMNH-1950.7.21.4, BMNH-1880.10.11.11, BMNH-1897.1.18.6, BMNH-1897.1.18.8, BMNH-1897.2.17.1, BMNH-1903.10.11.7, BMNH-1903.10.11.8, BMNH-1905.11.8.1, BMNH-1928.4.21.70, BMNH-1950.3.29.10, BMNH-1950.3.29.11, BMNH-1950.3.29.12, BMNH-1950.7.21.3, BMNH-1950.7.21.5, BMNH-1950.7.21.6, BMNH-1950.7.21.7, BMNH-1950.7.21.8, BMNH-1968.8.9.1, BMNH-1991.272, UCL-GMZ-Z309, MNHB-2782, MNHB-37702, MNHB-47500, MNHB-70692, MNHB-72815, MNHB-72816, UMZC 7081. Neophoca cinerea: BMNH-1897.10.10.5, BMNH-1925.10.8.32, BMNH-1925.10.8.33, BMNH-1968.9.26.27, BMNH-1968.9.26.23, BMNH-1968.9.26.25, BMNH-1968.9.26.29, BMNH-1968.9.26.30, UMZC 7152. Otaria byronia: BMNH-1851.5.5.51, BMNH-1869.2.24.1, BMNH-1869.8.10.1, BMNH-1886.12.13.1, BMNH-1900.5.7.10, BMNH-1920.6.5.1, BMNH-1925.12.17.11, BMNH-1934.1.21.4, BMNH-1939.1.21.10, BMNH-1939.1.21.104, BMNH-1939.1.21.106, BMNH-1939.1.21.107, BMNH-1939.1.21.108, BMNH-1939.1.21.109, BMNH-1939.1.21.112, BMNH-1939.1.21.113, BMNH-1939.1.21.115, BMNH-1939.1.21.116, BMNH-1939.1.21.118, BMNH-1939.1.21.119, BMNH-1939.1.21.12, BMNH-1939.1.21.120, BMNH-1939.1.21.122, BMNH-1939.1.21.133, BMNH-1939.1.21.14, BMNH-1939.1.21.163, BMNH-1939.1.21.17, BMNH-1939.1.21.177, BMNH-1939.1.21.180, BMNH-1939.1.21.3, BMNH-1939.1.21.5, BMNH-1939.1.21.71, BMNH-1939.1.21.72, BMNH-1939.1.21.76, BMNH-1939.1.21.77, BMNH-1939.1.21.78, BMNH-1939.1.21.81, BMNH-1939.1.21.83, BMNH-1939.1.21.84, BMNH-1939.1.21.85, BMNH-1939.1.21.86, BMNH-1939.1.21.89, BMNH-1949.3.17.83, BMNH-1950.11.6.1, BMNH-1959.12.4.6, BMNH-335.d, BMNH-335 m, BMNH-84.984, BMNH-84987, BMNH-WS 479, UCL-GMZ-Z2247, MNHB-288, MNHB-33881, MNHB-70685, MNHB-70693, MNHB-70695, MNHB-72817, MNHB-72822, MNHN-1889-1540, OUM13885, OUM13887, OUM14203, UMZC 7005, UMZC 7024, UMZC 7028, UMZC 7029, UMZC 7030, UMZC 907.AB. Phocarctos hookeri: BMNH-1876.2.16.9, BMNH-1908.2.20.53, UMZC 7182, UMZC 7183, UMZC 7184. Phocidae. Cystophora cristata: UMZC 7746, UMZC 7750, UMZC 7741, BMNH-1843.10.7.7, BMNH-1843.10.7.8, BMNH-1844.2.2.1, BMNH-1844.6.23.1 (332.a), BMNH-1870.6.22.10 (332.i), BMNH-1890.8.1.4, BMNH-1907.9.4.4, BMNH-1949.2.3.7, BMNH-1949.2.3.8, BMNH-1951.4.19.2, BMNH-332.d, BMNH-332.g, BMNH-332.h, MNHB-16322, MNHB-3296, MNHB-33244, MNHB-33246, MNHB-33255, MNHB-33258, MNHB-60594, MNHN-1929.226, MNHN-1990-689, MNHN-2007-406, OUM13881, ZMA 16.334, ZMA 16.336, ZMA 16.337, ZMA 16.338, ZMA 16.339, ZMA 16.34, ZMA 16.341, ZMA 16.343, ZMA 16.344, ZMA 16.345, ZMA 16.346, ZMA 16.347, ZMA 18.059, ZMA 18.060, ZMA 18.061, ZMA 18.062, ZMA 18.063, ZMA 18.065, ZMA 18.066, ZMA 18.067, ZMA 18.068, ZMA 18.069, ZMA 18.081, ZMA 18.088, ZMA 18.089, ZMA 18.098, ZMA 24.696, ZMA 25.384, ZMA 25.448. Erignathus barbatus: BMNH-1887.9.28.1, BMNH-1896.9.23.6, BMNH-1937.10.23.9, OUM13878, OUM13890, UMZC 8022, UMZC 8023, UMZC 8024. Halichoerus grypus: BMNH-1845.3.17.8, BMNH-1863.3.18.3, BMNH-1924.1.3.1, BMNH-1934.6.20.1, BMNH-1938.3.12.1, BMNH-1939.1.14.1, BMNH-1950.1.23.5, BMNH-1951.11.28.1, BMNH-1955.9.23.1, BMNH-1956.9.26.4, BMNH-196.1.23.7, BMNH-1961.1.23.3, BMNH-1961.1.23.4, BMNH-1961.1.23.8, BMNH-1961.11.1.2, BMNH-1961.5.18.1, BMNH-1961.5.18.10, BMNH-1961.5.18.11, BMNH-1961.5.18.11, BMNH-1961.5.18.12, BMNH-1961.5.18.13, BMNH-1961.5.18.14, BMNH-1961.5.18.15, BMNH-1961.5.18.16, BMNH-1961.5.18.17, BMNH-1961.5.18.18, BMNH-1961.5.18.19, BMNH-1961.5.18.2, BMNH-1961.5.18.23, BMNH-1961.5.18.25, BMNH-1961.5.18.26, BMNH-1961.5.18.27, BMNH-1961.5.18.3, BMNH-1961.5.18.30, BMNH-1961.5.18.31, BMNH-1961.5.18.32, BMNH-1961.5.18.33, BMNH-1961.5.18.34, BMNH-1961.5.18.35, BMNH-1961.5.18.36, BMNH-1961.5.18.37, BMNH-1961.5.18.4, BMNH-1962.3.6.1, BMNH-88.328, UCL-GMZ-LDUC-Z1630, UCL-GMZ-Z1123, UCL-GMZ-Z1124, UCL-GMZ-Z2243, UCL-GMZ-Z2298, MNHB-1502, MNHB-26346, MNHB-26584, MNHB-28412, MNHB-31975, MNHN-1952.28, MNHN-1966-03, MNHN-1978-47, MNHN-1978-48, MNHN-1979-19, MNHN-1981-165, MNHN-1988-016, MNHN-1991-723, MNHN-1991-724, MNHN-2004-301, OUM13907, UMZC 7942, ZMA 14.514, ZMA 5845, UE-NHC-XH13-4.1, UMZC 7941, UMZC 7943. Histriophoca fasciata: BMNH-1963.7.19.6, BMNH-1965.7.19.8. BMNH-1965.7.19.9, BMNH-1966.12.7.2. Hydrurga leptonyx: BMNH-1843.1.8.4, BMNH-1846.4.15.23 (325.d), BMNH-1846.4.15.24 (325.b), BMNH-1851.7.18.47 (325.h), BMNH-1854.8.25.5 (325.i), BMNH-1885.10.20.2 (325.n), BMNH-1893.9.14.1, BMNH-1901.1.4.15, BMNH-1908.2.20.54, BMNH-1914.1.29.2, BMNH-1934.12.4.1, BMNH-1938.12.3.2, BMNH-1939.1891, BMNH-1939.2.11.10, BMNH-1939.2.11.11, BMNH-1939.2.11.12, BMNH-1939.2.11.13, BMNH-1939.2.11.14, BMNH-1939.2.11.15, BMNH-1939.2.11.16, BMNH-1939.2.11.17, BMNH-1939.2.11.18, BMNH-1939.2.11.20, BMNH-1939.2.11.21, BMNH-1939.2.11.22, BMNH-1939.2.11.23, BMNH-1939.2.11.3, BMNH-1939.2.11.4, BMNH-1939.2.11.8, BMNH-1939.2.25.1, BMNH-1939.2.25.2, BMNH-1939.2.25.3, BMNH-1939.2.25.5, BMNH-1939.2.25.7, BMNH-1939.2.265.4, BMNH-1939.4.29.5, BMNH-1940.4.6.126, BMNH-1940.4.6.127, BMNH-1940.4.6.14, BMNH-1940.4.6.142, BMNH-1940.4.6.146, BMNH-1940.4.6.16, BMNH-1940.4.6.17, BMNH-1940.4.6144, BMNH-1949.2.1.2, BMNH-1949.4.6.28, BMNH-1958.4.24.7, BMNH-1959.12.17.4, BMNH-1959.12.4.1, BMNH-1959.12.4.2, BMNH-1959.12.4.3, UCL-GMZ-Z1125, UCL-GMZ-Z1646, UCL-GMZ-Z312, UCL-GMZ-Z313, MNHB-12714, MNHB-36250, MNHB-36253, MNHB-38317, MNHB-38321, MNHN-1884-1152, MNHN-1952-194, MNHN-1952-195, MNHN-1955-173, MNHN-1971-116, MNHN-1973-190, MNHN-1982-799, ZMA 24.204. Leptonychotes weddellii: BMNH-1846.4.25.22, BMNH-1908.2.20.11, BMNH-1908.2.20.13, BMNH-1908.2.20.16, BMNH-1908.2.20.17, BMNH-1908.2.20.18, BMNH-1908.2.20.2, BMNH-1908.2.20.20, BMNH-1908.2.20.21, BMNH-1908.2.20.22, BMNH-1908.2.20.23, BMNH-1908.2.20.25, BMNH-1908.2.20.26, BMNH-1908.2.20.58, BMNH-1908.2.20.59, BMNH-1908.2.20.6, BMNH-1908.2.20.60, BMNH-1908.2.20.62, BMNH-1908.2.20.63, BMNH-1910.9.19.1, BMNH-1940.4.6.108, BMNH-1940.4.6.109, BMNH-1940.4.6.110, BMNH-1940.4.6.18, BMNH-1940.4.6.21, BMNH-1940.4.6.22, BMNH-1940.4.6.23, BMNH-1940.4.6.24, BMNH-1940.4.6.25, BMNH-1940.4.6.27, BMNH-1940.4.6.32, BMNH-1940.4.6.33, BMNH-1940.4.6.35, BMNH-1940.4.6.36, BMNH-1940.4.6.38, BMNH-1940.4.6.39, BMNH-1940.4.6.41, BMNH-1940.4.6.44, BMNH-1940.4.6.47, BMNH-1940.4.6.65, BMNH-1940.4.6.72, BMNH-1940.4.6.73, BMNH-1940.4.6.99, BMNH-1949.2.3.4, BMNH-1951.5.1.12, BMNH-1951.5.1.13, BMNH-1951.5.1.2, BMNH-1951.5.1.3, BMNH-1951.5.1.4, BMNH-1951.5.1.6, BMNH-1951.5.1.7, BMNH-1951.5.16.5, BMNH-1951.5.8.3, BMNH-1951.5.8.4, BMNH-1951.5.8.5, BMNH-1951.5.8.6, BMNH-1951.5.8.8, BMNH-1951.8.28.16, BMNH-1951.8.28.17, BMNH-1951.8.28.18, BMNH-1959.12.16.1, BMNH-1959.12.16.10, BMNH-1959.12.16.11, BMNH-1959.12.16.13, BMNH-1959.12.16.15, BMNH-1959.12.16.2, BMNH-1959.12.16.3, BMNH-1959.12.16.4, BMNH-1959.12.16.6, BMNH-1959.12.16.7, BMNH-1959.12.16.8, BMNH-1959.12.6.5, BMNH-1959.5.16.1, BMNH-1980.2.20.14, BMNH-1981.1394, BMNH-1981.1395, BMNH-1981.1787, UCL-GMZ-Z1126, UCL-GMZ-Z1127, MNHB-36268, MNHB-36269, MNHB-36270, MNHB-36271, MNHB-36274, MNHB-36275, MNHB-36278, MNHB-36281, MNHB-36282, MNHB-36283, MNHB-36284, OUM4788, UMZC 7881, UMZC 7882, UMZC 7884. Lobodon carcinophaga: BMNH-1843.11.16.2, BMNH-1844.10.29.18, BMNH-1844.11.16.4, BMNH-1846.4.15.19, BMNH-1846.4.15.20, BMNH-1901.1.4.10, BMNH-1908.2.10.36, BMNH-1908.2.20.32, BMNH-1908.2.20.34, BMNH-1908.2.20.39, BMNH-1908.2.20.41, BMNH-1908.2.20.43, BMNH-1910.9.19.3, BMNH-1935.3.29.1, BMNH-1935.3.29.3, BMNH-1935.3.29.4, BMNH-1939.2.4.1, BMNH-1939.2.4.3, BMNH-1939.2.4.4, BMNH-1939.2.4.6, BMNH-1939.2.4.7, BMNH-1939.2.4.8, BMNH-1939.4479, BMNH-1940.4.6.10, BMNH-1940.4.6.11, BMNH-1940.4.6.111, BMNH-1940.4.6.12, BMNH-1940.4.6.129, BMNH-1940.4.6.13, BMNH-1940.4.6.132, BMNH-1940.4.6.49, BMNH-1940.4.6.52, BMNH-1940.4.6.58, BMNH-1940.4.6.63, BMNH-1940.4.6.67, BMNH-1940.4.6.7, BMNH-1940.4.6.77, BMNH-1940.4.6.85, BMNH-1940.4.6.86, BMNH-1940.4.6.88, BMNH-1940.4.6.89, BMNH-1940.4.6.90, BMNH-1940.4.6.92, BMNH-1940.4.6.93, BMNH-1949.4.6.8, BMNH-1951.6.25.4, BMNH-1951.6.25.5, BMNH-1951.8.28.15, BMNH-1956.12.8.6, BMNH-1957.3.12.1, BMNH-1957.8.15.1, BMNH-1959.12.8.10, BMNH-1959.12.8.18, BMNH-1959.12.8.2, BMNH-1959.12.8.3, BMNH-1959.12.8.5, BMNH-1959.12.8.7, BMNH-1959.12.8.8, BMNH-1959.12.8.9, BMNH-1981.1323, BMNH-1981.1324, BMNH-1981.1325, BMNH-1981.1334, BMNH-1981.1336, MNHB-36258, MNHB-36265, MNHB-38325, MNHB-38329, MNHB-86629, MNHB-86630. Mirounga angustirostris: BMNH-1966.10.24.3. Mirounga leonina: UE-NHC-XH13-6.1, BMNH-1843.11.16.25 (334.b), BMNH-1846.4.15.21 (33.4.c), BMNH-1876.1.28.82 334.e), BMNH-1894.11.17.1, BMNH-1912.9.28.1, BMNH-1922.1.28.2, BMNH-1930.12.13.1, BMNH-1933.8.12.1, BMNH-1939.4.29.1, BMNH-1939.4.29.4, BMNH-1939.5.20.1, BMNH-1949.2.1.3, BMNH-1949.2.3.11, BMNH-1949.2.3.12, BMNH-1949.2.3.14, BMNH-1950.7.21.9, BMNH-1951.7.17.1, BMNH-1951.7.17.3, BMNH-1951.7.17.5, BMNH-1951.7.17.7, BMNH-1951.7.17.8, BMNH-1954.5.20.13, BMNH-1954.5.20.21, BMNH-1954.5.20.22, BMNH-1954.5.20.23, BMNH-1954.5.20.32, BMNH-1954.5.20.33, BMNH-1954.5.20.34, BMNH-1954.5.20.37, BMNH-1954.5.20.38, BMNH-1954.5.20.4, BMNH-1954.5.20.5, BMNH-1954.5.20.52, BMNH-1954.5.20.55, BMNH-1954.5.20.58, BMNH-1954.5.20.6, BMNH-1954.5.20.60, BMNH-1954.5.20.61, BMNH-1954.5.20.61, BMNH-1954.5.20.62, BMNH-1954.5.20.64, BMNH-1954.5.20.67, BMNH-1954.5.20.67, BMNH-1954.5.20.68, BMNH-1954.5.20.7, BMNH-1954.5.20.8, BMNH-1954.5.20.9, BMNH-1955.11.24.3, BMNH-1959.12.17.2, BMNH-1959.12.17.3, BMNH-1981.1265, BMNH-1981.1392, BMNH-334d, BMNH-81.1381, BMNH-82200, BMNH-867, MNHB-36227, MNHB-36230, MNHB-36238, MNHB-36239, MNHB-36240, MNHB-36241, MNHB-36242, MNHB-47195, MNHB-4857, MNHB-4894, MNHB-86281, MNHN-1931-46, MNHN-1952-185, MNHN-1952-198, MNHN-1955-170, MNHN-1955-171, MNHN-1972-142, MNHN-1977-20, MNHN-1977-23, MNHN-1977-24, MNHN-1983-045, ZMA 23.394. Monachus monachus: BMNH-1863.4.1.1 (1421.a), BMNH-1892.11.7.1, BMNH-1894.7.27.1 (1063.f), BMNH-1894.7.27.2 (1063.g), BMNH-1951.4.17.1, MNHB-1520, MNHB-16083, MNHB-47518, UMZC 7781. Neomonachus schauinslandi: BMNH-1958.11.26.1. Neomonachus tropicalis: BMNH-1989.11.5.1. Ommatophoca rossii: BMNH-1901.1.4.12, BMNH-1901.1.4.13, BMNH-1908.2.20.47, BMNH-1908.2.20.48, BMNH-1908.2.20.50, BMNH-1949.2.3.1, BMNH-1949.9.2.3.2, BMNH-1951.4.24.1, BMNH-1961.2.24.1, BMNH-1961.2.24.10, BMNH-1961.2.24.2, BMNH-1961.2.24.4, BMNH-1961.2.24.7, BMNH-1961.2.24.8, BMNH-1961.2.24.9, BMNH-1965.12.20.1, MNHB-36245, MNHB-36246, MNHB-36247, MNHB-36248. Pagophilus groenlandicus: BMNH-1843.10.7.9, UCL-GMZ-Z304, BMNH-1843.6.23.5, BMNH-1843.6.23.6, BMNH-1843.6.23.7, BMNH-1919.7.7.3262, BMNH-1938.12.10.1, BMNH-1938.12.10.2, BMNH-1938.12.10.3, BMNH-1951.11.28.2, BMNH-1963.7.19.1, BMNH-1963.7.19.3, BMNH-1963.7.19.4, BMNH-1963.7.19.5, BMNH-328.g, MNHN-1865-509, MNHN-1985-2007, UMZC 8281, UMZC 8282, UMZC 8283, UMZC 8284, UMZC 8285, ZMA 16.851, ZMA 16.852, ZMA 20.229, ZMA 20.301, ZMA 20.323, ZMA 20.324, ZMA 20.325, ZMA 20.326, ZMA 20.327, ZMA 20.331, ZMA 20.334, ZMA 20.344, ZMA 20.347, ZMA 20.348, ZMA 20.364, ZMA 20.367, ZMA 20.382, ZMA 20.406, ZMA 20.41, ZMA 20.412, ZMA 20.413, ZMA 23.233, ZMA 23.483, ZMA 24.694, ZMA 671, ZMA 699, ZMA 890, ZMA 893. Pusa hispida: BMNH-1004.c, BMNH-1889.4.1.1., BMNH-1895.6.20.1, BMNH-1919.7.7.3264, BMNH-1937.10.23.1, BMNH-1937.10.23.2, BMNH-1937.10.23.3, BMNH-1937.10.23.5, BMNH-1937.10.23.6, BMNH-1937.5.19.1, BMNH-1937.5.19.3, BMNH-1938.11.26.6, BMNH-1938.11.26.7, BMNH-1938.12.10.5, BMNH-1938.12.3.1, BMNH-1997.585, MNHN-1934-45, OUM13899, UMZC 8201, UMZC 8204, UMZC 8205, ZMA 17.183, ZMA 24.214, ZMA 24.348, ZMA 25.003, ZMA 33.706, ZMA 898, ZMA 899. Phoca largha: BMNH-1873.11.5.7, BMNH-1891.12.18.6, BMNH-1965.7.19.12, BMNH-1965.7.19.13, BMNH-1965.7.19.14. Phoca vitulina: BMNH-1004.f, BMNH-1868.3.21.1, BMNH-1877.12.10.2, BMNH-1919.7.7.3260, BMNH-1951.3.2.1, BMNH-1954.9.23.1, BMNH-329.d, BMNH-1886.3.18.1, BMNH-1928.9.1.2, BMNH-329.i, UCL-GMZ-Z2250, UCL-GMZ-Z303, MNHB-72452, MNHB-72453, MNHB-72454, MNHB-72455, MNHB-85866, MNHN-1880-771, MNHN-1894-524, MNHN-1902-560, MNHN-1940-161, MNHN-1940-294, MNHN-1951-147, MNHN-1983-792, MNHN-2007-411, UE-NHC-XH13-2.3, UE-NHC-XH13-2.3a, UE-NHC-XH13-2.6, OUM 13871, OUM 13875, OUM13870, OUM13873, OUM13902, OUM7105, UMZC 8081, UMZC 8087, UMZC 8088, UMZC 8089, UMZC 8090, UMZC 8092, UMZC 8095, UMZC 8099, UMZC 8173, UMZC 8191, ZMA 23.556, ZMA 23.558, ZMA 23.559, ZMA 23.56, ZMA 23.561, ZMA 23.562, ZMA 23.712, ZMA 23.713, ZMA 23.716, ZMA 23.717, ZMA 23.718, ZMA 23.721, ZMA 23.722, ZMA 23.725, ZMA 23.726, ZMA 23.735, ZMA 23.758, ZMA 23.759, ZMA 23.76, ZMA 23.771, ZMA 23.817, ZMA 23.819, ZMA 23.823, ZMA 23.824. Pusa caspica: BMNH-1963.7.19.10, BMNH-1963.7.19.11, BMNH-1963.7.19.12, BMNH-1963.7.19.13, BMNH-1963.7.19.14, BMNH-1963.7.19.15, BMNH-1965.7.19.1, BMNH-1965.7.19.2, BMNH-1966.2.15.1, UMZC 8241. Pusa sibirica: BMNH-1909.10.15.2, BMNH-1959.6.10.1, BMNH-1960.12.21.1, BMNH-1963.7.19.8, BMNH-1963.7.19.9, BMNH-1965.7.19.3, BMNH-1965.7.19.4, BMNH-1965.9.6.1, BMNH-1965.9.6.2, MNHB-83441. Zalophus californianus: ZMA 24.440, MNHN-1901-646, MNHN-1879-271, MNHN-1882-190, MNHN-1879-269, MNHN-1879-270, MNHN-1897-22, BMNH-1903.10.11.3, BMNH-1903.10.11.4, BMNH-1952.12.19.1, BMNH-1903.10.11.5, BMNH-1903.10.11.6, BMNH-1908.10.11.2. Zalophus japonicus: BMNH-1973.3.12.1. Zalophus wollebaeki: MNHN-1962-1141, MNHN-1962-1142, MNHN-1962-1143, MNHN-1962-1144, MNHN-1962-1145, MNHN-1962-1146, MNHN-1962-1148, MNHN-1962-1149, MNHN-1962-1155, MNHN-1962-1156, MNHN-1962-1158, MNHN-1973-293. Zalophus sp.: BMNH-1951.2.2.1, BMNH-1951.3.6.2, BMNH-1954.2.9.1, UCL-GMZ-Z1076, UCL-GMZ-Z2238, UCL-GMZ-Z2342, UCL-GMZ-Z301, MNHB-43163, MNHB-61617, MNHB-72821, MNHB-92601, MNHN-1934-528, MNHN-1944-276, UE-NHC-XH13-3.1, UE-NHC-XH13-3.1a, UE-NHC-XH13-3.5, UE-NHC-XH13-3.6, UMZC 7122, ZMA 11.124, ZMA 11.125, ZMA 11.126, ZMA 1698, ZMA 17.819, ZMA 20.346, ZMA 21.902, ZMA 22.956, ZMA 667, ZMA 7384, MNHB-31399.

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Drehmer, C.J., Sanfelice, D. & Loch, C. Dental anomalies in pinnipeds (Carnivora: Otariidae and Phocidae): occurrence and evolutionary implications. Zoomorphology 134, 325–338 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-015-0255-x

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Keywords

  • Agenesis
  • Atavism
  • Fur seals
  • Sea lions
  • Seals
  • Supernumerary teeth