Association of adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in gallbladder cancer susceptibility in a North Indian population

  • Rajani Rai
  • Kiran L. Sharma
  • Sanjeev Misra
  • Ashok Kumar
  • Balraj MittalEmail author
Original Article - Cancer Research



Gallbladder cancer (GBC), the most common gastrointestinal and biliary tract malignancy, often coincides with gallstone disease (GSD). The genetic variants of adrenergic receptor (ADR) have been previously reported to be associated with hypomotility disorder of cardiovascular system and GSD. Since GSD may function as GBC precursor, the present study aimed to investigate the association of common functional genetic variants of ADRA2A C-1291G, ADRβ3 T190C or Trp64Arg, and ADRβ1 C1165G or Arg389Gly with GBC and GSD susceptibility.


The present study included a total of 400 histologically confirmed GBC, 230 GSD, and 268 healthy controls. The ADRA2A C-1291G, ADRβ3 T190C, and ADRβ1 C1165G polymorphisms were determined by PCR–RFLP. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 16.


ADRβ3 T190C polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of GBC (CT: Pcorr = 0.015, OR 2.87; CC: Pcorr = 0.038, OR 10.33; C allele: Pcorr = 0.014, OR 2.7; CT + CC: Pcorr = 0.017, OR 3.05). These associations existed even after gallstone and gender stratification. Similarly, ADRβ3 T190C polymorphism was also associated with GSD risk, though limited only to female GSD patients. In contrary, ADRA2A C-1291G conferred a marginally increased risk only in GSD patients. ADRβ1 C1165G polymorphism was not associated with GBC and GSD susceptibility when compared to controls.


ADRβ3 T190C polymorphism is significantly associated with GBC and GSD susceptibility. The ADRβ3 T190C may be involved in the pathophysiology of GBC by both gallstone-dependent pathway and by some other independent mechanisms.


Adrenergic receptors (ADR) Gallbladder cancer (GBC) Gallstone disease (GSD) Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Case–control study 



Gallbladder cancer


Adrenergic receptors


Healthy controls


Gallstone disease


Single-nucleotide polymorphism


Statistical package for social sciences


False discovery rate


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium



The authors thank Department of Biotechnology and Indian Council of Medical Research, Govt of India, for financial support to carry out the present study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

432_2014_1621_MOESM1_ESM.doc (128 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 128 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajani Rai
    • 1
  • Kiran L. Sharma
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Misra
    • 2
  • Ashok Kumar
    • 3
  • Balraj Mittal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsSanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Surgical OncologyKGMULucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of Surgical GastroenterologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS)LucknowIndia

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