Community-acquired pneumonia is a common diagnosis in children. Among the many children whose symptoms and/or chest X-ray is consistent with community-acquired pneumonia, it can be difficult to distinguish the rare cases of differential diagnoses that require specific management. The aim of this educational article is to provide clinicians with a series of questions to ask themselves in order to detect a possible differential diagnosis of pneumonia in children. The value of this approach is illustrated by 13 real clinical cases in which a child was misdiagnosed as having lobar pneumonia.
What is Known:
• When a lobar pneumonia is diagnosed, an appropriate antibiotic treatment leads to the resolution of the clinical signs in most cases.
• However, several diseases can be look-alikes for pneumonia and mislead the practitioner.
What is New:
• This article provides a new approach to identify differential diagnoses of pneumonia in children.
• It is illustrated by 13 real-life situations of children misdiagnosed as having pneumonia.
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Drummond, D., Hadchouel, A., Petit, A. et al. Strategies for recognizing pneumonia look-alikes. Eur J Pediatr 181, 3565–3575 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04575-9