Superiority of OxyMaskTM with less carbon dioxide rebreathing in children

Abstract

Despite the growing importance of oxygen-delivery devices worldwide, there are only a few reports of physiological data on various oxygen masks in children. The possibility of carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing has been a prevalent concern with the use of oxygen-delivery devices. OxyMask KidTM (Southmedic Inc. Canada; hereafter OxyMask) is expected to reduce CO2 rebreathing even at low oxygen flow rates because of its structural features. Biological data using OxyMask in children have not been well investigated. Measured respiratory parameters of OxyMask with those of a simple oxygen mask in healthy children were compared. Ten subjects were enrolled, with a median age of 5.4 years. All subjects used both OxyMask and a simple oxygen mask. The fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2), partial pressure of inspiratory CO2 (PICO2), and partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 were measured using a sidestream gas-sampling monitor in all subjects. The oxygen flow rate was set at 1, 3, 5, and 10 L/min. FIO2 levels were higher with OxyMask than those with the simple oxygen mask at 3 L/min of oxygen. PICO2 levels were significantly lower with OxyMask than those with the simple oxygen mask (1.5 mmHg vs. 3.7 mmHg at 1 L/min, P = 0.005; 1.0 mmHg vs. 2.7 mmHg at 3 L/min, P = 0.005, respectively), whereas PICO2 levels were higher at low oxygen flow rates with both masks.

Conclusion: Our results showed that higher FIO2 and less CO2 rebreathing were achieved with OxyMask than those with a simple oxygen mask at low flow rates of oxygen in healthy children.

What is Known:
• OxyMask is expected to reduce carbon dioxide rebreathing even at low oxygen flow rates because of its structural features.
• Efficacy has been demonstrated in experimental models and adult data, but clinical data on the use of the OxyMask in children are limited.
What is New:
• Higher fraction of inspiratory oxygen and lesser carbon dioxide rebreathing were achieved with OxyMask than with a simple oxygen mask at low flow rates of oxygen in healthy children

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Abbreviations

FIO2 :

Fraction of inspiratory oxygen

PETCO2 :

Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide

PICO2 :

Partial pressure of inspiratory carbon dioxide

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Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on request.

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Contributions

S. Ogiwara was the principal author of the study and contributed to the design of the study; performed the experiments, clinical data collection and analysis; and drafted the first version of the manuscript. T. Tamura performed the experiments and drafted the first version of the manuscript. S. Sai performed data analysis and drafted the first version of the manuscript. M. Nojima performed data analysis and drafted the first version of the manuscript. S Kawana contributed to the design of the study and drafted the first version of the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shigetoshi Ogiwara.

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Ethics approval

The study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committee of our hospital (ethics approval number rin2014-27).

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Written informed consent was obtained from all individual parents. All the methods were conducted following the relevant guidelines, regulations, and the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Written informed consent was obtained from all individual parents included in the study.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Communicated by Peter de Winter

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Ogiwara, S., Tamura, T., Sai, S. et al. Superiority of OxyMaskTM with less carbon dioxide rebreathing in children. Eur J Pediatr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04157-1

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Keywords

  • Oxygen-delivery device
  • Oxygen therapy
  • OxyMask
  • Diffuser mask
  • Pediatric respiratory physiology