Sleep and new media usage in toddlers
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Several studies over the years have demonstrated the association between lack of sleep in children and certain physical, psychological, and behavioral disorders. The aim of this study was to disentangle the association between new screen-based electronic devices and sleep problems in toddlers, adjusting for other covariates already known to be associated with sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study with the aid of a national sample of 1117 toddlers. Parents reported children’s sleeping habits such as total sleep time and sleep onset latency, recreational activities, bedtime routines, and temperament. An ordered logistic regression was run to assess the associations between new media exposure and two sleep outcomes (total sleep time and sleep onset latency). Everyday use of a tablet or smartphone raised the odds of a shorter total sleep time (OR 1.95 [1.00–3.79], p < 0.05) and a longer sleep onset latency (OR 2.44 [1.26–4.73] p < 0.05) irrespective of other factors, such as temperament (restlessness, sociability), or traditional screen exposure (watching TV or playing videogames).
What is known
• Studies have found an association between sleep behavior and the use of computers and video games in early childhood.
• The blue light emitted from TV screens suppresses endogenous melatonin.
What is new
• The study found an association between daily new media (tablet and smartphone) usage and sleep quality in toddlers
• New media usage exposes toddlers to the risk of fewer hours of sleep and taking longer to fall asleep, irrespective of other factors.
KeywordsTime Sleep Childhood Toddlers Touch screen device Video games
Federazione Italiana Medici Pediatri
The authors thank all pediatricians and parents who participated in the study.
Dr. Gallimberti conceptualized the study, coordinated all study phases, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Buja, Dr. Sperotto and Dr. Buzzetti designed the study, carried out the statistical analyses, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Dr. DeBattisti wrote the paper. Dr. Marini, Dr. Marconi and Dr. Terraneo were involved in the design of the study. Dr. Chindamo designed the data collection tools, coordinated and supervised data collection, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Doria and Dr Chiamenti coordinated and supervised data collection, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Ceschin, Dr. Malorgio, and Dr. Tommasi coordinated data collection and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Gomez Perez interpreted the data, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Prof Baldo designed the sampling methods, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.
Funding for this study was provided by the Italian Federation of Pediatricians (Federazione Italiana dei Medici Pediatri), Genitori Attenti! Association for the promotion of social and health action, and by the Novella Fronda Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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