Sleep duration, body composition, dietary profile and eating behaviours among children and adolescents: a comparison between Portuguese acrobatic gymnasts
- 273 Downloads
Sleep, body composition and dietary intake are crucial for athletes’ health and performance but have never been investigated in acrobatic gymnasts. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate sleep, body composition, dietary intake and eating behaviours of acrobatic gymnasts. Using a cross-sectional study, 82 Portuguese acrobatic gymnasts (12.8 ± 3.1 years, 61 females and 21 males) were evaluated during the competitive period to collect training data, sleep duration, body composition, dietary intake and eating behaviours before, during and after practices. Most of the gymnasts (91.5%) slept less than 8 h/night. Female adolescents slept significantly less on weekdays than female children (P = 0.024). Female adolescents’ mean body mass was below the normal and 60.0% showed menstrual irregularities; 4.9% of females bases were overweight and 2.4% obese. Male adolescents slept significantly less on weekdays than male children (P = 0.001); significant differences were shown for fat-free mass (P = 0.014); however, 3.7% were overweight. All daily energy and macronutrient intakes were significantly different according to age and gender, with exception for fibre and energy intake in females (P = 0.057 and P = 0.052, respectively), and for protein in males (P = 0.068). Female and male adolescents demonstrated significant lower energy availability (32.8 ± 9.4 kcal/kg FFM/day and 45.1 ± 14.7 kcal/kg FFM/day) than children (45.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg FFM/day and 53.8 ± 9.1 kcal/kg FFM/day), respectively. Significant low intakes of important vitamins and minerals were reported. Most of the participants did not eat or drink during or immediately after training sessions.
What is Known:
• Adequate dietary intake is an important resource for athletes’ short and long-term health and performance.
• There are no published studies in acrobatic gymnasts’ sleep, body composition or dietary intake.
What is New:
• This study provides the first data on significant differences in energy intake and availability between acrobatic gymnasts; overweight and obesity were present in females.
• Macro and micronutrients were inappropriate. Female Athlete Triad was observed in female adolescent acrobatic gymnasts.
KeywordsSleep Body composition Dietary intake Eating behaviours Gymnasts Female athlete triad
American College of Sports Medicine
Basal metabolic rate
Body mass index
Exercise energy expenditure
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique
Food and Nutrition Board/Institute of Medicine
Low energy availability
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Total body water
The authors thank the gymnasts for their participation in this study and coaches and parents for their collaboration. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, Oporto, Portugal and at the Research Centre of Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. This work was supported by National Founds from FCT – Foundation for Science and Technology under Grant: PEst-OE/SADG/UI0283/2015. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This work was supported by National Founds from FCT – Foundation for Science and Technology [grant number: PEst-OE/SADG/UI0283/2015].
All authors were responsible for the conception, design, data analysis and data interpretation of the study and writing of the manuscript; M.-R. G. Silva was also responsible for data collection. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Informed written consent from each participant was obtained in accordance with the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines for human subjects. The current study was reviewed and approved by the Ethical Committee of the University Fernando Pessoa (Oporto, Portugal). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS (2011) Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(8):1575–1581. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Brozek J, Grande F, Anderson JT, Keys A (1963) Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 26(110):113–140Google Scholar
- 4.Croezen S, Visscher TL, Ter Bogt NC, Veling ML, Haveman-Nies A (2009) Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:405–412. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602950 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.De Souza MJ, Nattiv A, Joy E et al (2014) 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st international conference held in San Francisco, CA, May 2012, and 2nd international conference held in Indianapolis, IN, May 2013. Clin J Sport Med 24(2):96–119. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000085 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Delaney JA, Thornton HR, Scott TJ, Ballard DA, Duthie GM, Wood LG, Dascombe BJ (2016) Validity of skinfold-based measures for tracking changes in body composition in professional rugby league players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 11(2):261–266. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0244 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Fullagar HH, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts AJ, Meyer T (2015) Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med 45:161–186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Hoch AZ, Pajewski NM, Moraski L, Carrera GF, Wilson CR, Hoffmann RG, Schimke JE, Gutterman DD (2009) Prevalence of the female athlete triad in high school athletes and sedentary students. Clin J Sport Med 19(5):421–428. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181b8c136 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 16.Kant AK, Graubard BI, Atchison EA (2009) Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population—nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and nutrition examination surveys 1999–2006. Am J Clin Nutr 90:655–663CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Marfell-Jones M (2006) International standards for anthropometric assessment. Potchefsroom, South Africa, ISAKGoogle Scholar
- 23.Portuguese Directorate-General of Health (2006) Child and juvenile health surveillance consultations—update of growth curves [in Portuguese]. Portuguese Directorate-General of Health - Ministry of Health, LisbonGoogle Scholar
- 24.Poslusna K, Ruprich J, de Vries JH, Jakubikova M, van't Veer P (2009) Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. Br J Nutr 101:S73–S85. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509990602 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Rodriguez NR, DiMarco NM, Langley S, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine (2009) Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Am Diet Assoc 109:509–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.01.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Silva M-R G, Pascoal A, Silva HH, Paiva T (2016) Assessing sleep, travelling habits and jet-lag in kite surfers according to competition level. Biol Rhythm Res. https://doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2016.1181233
- 33.Silva M-RG, Santos-Rocha R, Barata P, Saavedra F (2017) Gender inequalities in Portuguese gymnasts between 2012 and 2016. Sci Gymnastics 9(2):191–200Google Scholar