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Clinical features of recurrent Kawasaki disease and its risk factors

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The clinical features and risk factors for recurrence of Kawasaki disease (KD) remain unclear. In order to summarize clinical features of recurrent KD and identify risk factors associated with recurrence, we conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of consecutive cases of KD from January 2002 to December 2010. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data were analyzed. The maximum coronary artery Z score normalized against body surface area was assessed using coronary artery diameters. At the first onset of recurrent KD, children had longer durations of fever before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lower hemoglobin levels than those with a single episode of KD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that long durations of fever before IVIG treatment, high AST levels, and reduced hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with recurrent KD. Ten of the 22 recurrent KD children had coronary artery complications during the first onset episode, and six (60 %) of these also had coronary artery complications during the recurrence. Children with longer durations of fever, lower hemoglobin levels, and higher AST levels may be at increased risk for KD and coronary artery complications are more likely to occur in children with recurrent KD if they were present during the first episode.

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Fig. 1

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Serum aspartate aminotransferase


Alanine aminotransferase


Body surface area


C-reactive protein


Confidence interval


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Intravenous immunoglobulin


Kawasaki disease


Left main coronary artery


Left anterior descending coronary artery


Odds ratio


Right coronary artery


White blood cell count


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Conflict of Interest

This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81274109, 30973238), Key Research Project of Beijing Natural Science Foundation (B)/Beijing Education Committee (KZ201010025024), and Science and Technology Innovation Platform (PXM2011_014226_07_000085).

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Correspondence to Zhong-Dong Du.

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Yang, Hm., Du, ZD. & Fu, Pp. Clinical features of recurrent Kawasaki disease and its risk factors. Eur J Pediatr 172, 1641–1647 (2013).

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