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Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency—x-linked recessive ichthyosis: a case report and review of literature

Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis due to steroid sulfatase deficiency has rarely been reported in English literature. We describe a 4 and a half-year-old boy presenting with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) with an underlying ichthyotic skin present since birth. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. As many of the male members of the family also showed similar skin manifestations, genetic analysis was done on the patient, which revealed deletion of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene spanning both the 3′ as well as the 5′ends. The patient was thus diagnosed with SRNS associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis. He was started on cyclosporine regimen, and remission was achieved in 5 weeks. We speculate that the deficiency of STS resulting in increased cholesterol sulfate accumulation interferes with the integrity of adherens junctions present between glomerular epithelial cells of the slit diaphragm, and this results in proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. The nephrotic syndrome remitted with a calcineurin inhibitor medication. Conclusion: We suggest that the deficiency of STS is another one in an increasing list of genetic causes of podocytopathy and nephrotic syndrome. Remission of proteinuria in such a case may be achieved with immunosuppressive medication.

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Correspondence to Kirtisudha Mishra.

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Mishra, K., Batra, V.V., Basu, S. et al. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency—x-linked recessive ichthyosis: a case report and review of literature. Eur J Pediatr 171, 847–850 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-012-1712-x

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Keywords

  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • X-linked ichthyosis
  • Steroid sulfatase