Advertisement

European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 168, Issue 11, pp 1335–1342 | Cite as

Blood pressure references for Polish children and adolescents

  • Alicja Krzyżaniak
  • Małgorzata Krzywińska-WiewiorowskaEmail author
  • Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska
  • Maria Kaczmarek
  • Lukasz Krzych
  • Małgorzata Kowalska
  • Ilona Szilágyi-Pągowska
  • Iwona Palczewska
  • Aleksandra Karch
  • Jadwiga Jośko
  • Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz
  • Tadeusz Nawarycz
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific reference ranges for blood pressure in a large national database on blood pressure levels throughout childhood and adolescence in young Poles. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 2002−2005 in the representative sampling sites, selected randomly from the entire Poland. Altogether, 6,447 school pupils, aged 7−18 years, were involved in the study of which 3,176 were boys and 3,271 were girls. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA for Windows 7.1. The normal range of blood pressure, determined by age and the category of body height percentiles, revealed percentiles values which might serve as reference values to identify cases of high normal blood pressure (the mean blood pressure between 90th and 95th percentiles for age and gender) and hypertension (the mean blood pressure equals or exceeds the 95th percentiles on at least three occasions).

Keywords

Reference tables Hypertension Children Adolescents Percentiles 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by Ministry of Health of Poland through contract number No 33/02

References

  1. 1.
    Blake KV, Gurrin LC, Evans SF, Newnham JP et al (2000) Reference ranges for blood pressure in preschool Australians, obtained by oscillometry. J Paediatr Child Health 36(1):41–46. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1754.2000.00445.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen X, Wang Y (2008) Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation 117(25):3171–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cole TJ, Green PJ (1992) Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 11:1305–1319. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780111005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fernandes MT, Sesso R, Martins PA, Sawaya AL (2003) Increased blood pressure in adolescents of low socioeconomic status with short stature. Pediatr Nephrol 18(5):435–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Genovesi S, Giussani M, Pieruzzi F, Vigorita F et al (2005) Results of blood pressure screening in a population of school-aged children in the province of Milan: role of overweight. J Hypertens 23(3):493–497. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000160203.35910.9f PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McCarron P, Smith GD, Okasha M (2002) Secular changes in blood pressure in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: systematic review of trends from 1948 to 1998. J Hum Hypertens 16(10):677–689. doi: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001471 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neuhauser H, Thamm M (2007) Blood pressure measurement in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Methodology and initial results. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 50(5–6):728–735. doi: 10.1007/s00103-007-0234-6 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paulus D, Saint-Remy A, Jeanjean M (1999) Blood pressure during adolescence: a study among Belgian adolescents selected from a high cardiovascular risk population. Eur J Epidemiol 15(9):783–790. doi: 10.1023/A:1007670613848 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reich A, Müller G, Gelbrich G, Deutscher K et al (2003) Obesity and blood pressure—results from the examination of 2,365 schoolchildren in Germany. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27(12):1459–1464. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802462 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children (1987). Pediatrics 79(1):1–25.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Report of the task force on blood pressure control in children, 1977, Pediatrics, 59(5 2 suppl):I−II, 797−820.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sinaiko AR, Gomez-Marin O, Prineas RJ (1989) Prevalence of “significant” hypertension in junior high school-aged children: the Children and Adolescent Blood Pressure Program. J Pediatr 114(4 Pt 1):664–669. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3476(89) 80718-8 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, 2004, Pediatrics 114; 555-576. doi: 10.1542/peds.114.2.S2.555
  14. 14.
    The Seventh Report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII), 2003, JAMA, 289:2560-2572 doi: 10.1001/jama.289.19.2560
  15. 15.
    Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: A Working Group Report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 1996, Pediatrics, 98:4, 649-657Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watkins D, McCarron P, Murray L, Cran G, Boreham et al (2004) Trends in blood pressure over 10 years in adolescents: analyses of cross sectional surveys in the Northern Ireland Young Hearts project. BMJ 29(7458):139. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38149.510139.7C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolański N (2006) Rozwój biologiczny człowieka. PWN, WarszawaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicja Krzyżaniak
    • 1
  • Małgorzata Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska
    • 1
  • Maria Kaczmarek
    • 2
  • Lukasz Krzych
    • 3
  • Małgorzata Kowalska
    • 3
  • Ilona Szilágyi-Pągowska
    • 4
  • Iwona Palczewska
    • 4
  • Aleksandra Karch
    • 5
  • Jadwiga Jośko
    • 5
  • Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz
    • 6
  • Tadeusz Nawarycz
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  2. 2.Institute of AnthropologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyMedical University of SilesiaKatowicePoland
  4. 4.Mother and Child InstituteWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Medicine & EpidemiologyMedical University of SilesiaZabrzePoland
  6. 6.Department of Human Physiology & BiophysicsMedical University of LodzLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations